Psychology Writing Services

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (7) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Persistent misconceptions persist surrounding COVID-19 vaccination, impacting various demographics, including pregnant women and those attempting to conceive. Despite over two years since the onset of the pandemic, substantial misunderstanding and misinformation persist. The safety of the vaccination for expectant mothers remains contentious, with concerns revolving around potential miscarriage risks or dangers to pregnant women (Wang et al., 2021). This presentation aims to delve into the topic of COVID-19 vaccines and their impact on pregnant individuals as part of BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Homework: Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate. One or More Additional Resources The article titled “COVID-19 Vaccination during Pregnancy: Coverage and Safety” provides an extensive analysis of the effects of COVID-19 vaccination on pregnancy. The insights presented in this article offer robust evidence supporting the stance advocated in this presentation. Based on studies conducted at London’s University Hospital National Health Science Organization, the article addresses concerns regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant women (Blakeway et al., 2021). Drawing upon a cohort study, the journal article demonstrates that both vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women experienced similar outcomes. The research unequivocally establishes that COVID-19 immunization does not affect perinatal outcomes or fertility. Furthermore, the article advocates for mRNA vaccinations among expecting women, highlighting their popularity and lower incidence of side effects (Blakeway et al., 2021). The credibility of the chosen article undergoes assessment utilizing a credibility framework. Hosted on the .gov domain, the article from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is deemed legitimate, meeting the criteria of the CRAAP test. Evaluation by professionals possessing expertise in vaccinations and immunizations, such as doctors, researchers, and epidemiologists, bolsters its reliability. The CDC’s oversight ensures that the content aligns with educational objectives for various healthcare professionals and stakeholders (Wei et al., 2021). Media or Internet Topic Reddit, a social news and information website, serves as a popular platform for sharing and discovering stories. However, it frequently disseminates incorrect information. Despite its widespread use for information dissemination, Reddit lacks independent content verification. Subreddits dedicated to propaganda contribute to the proliferation of misinformation, including false beliefs regarding vaccine safety for pregnant women (Lee et al., 2021). What Was Learned About the Selected Topic Research findings indicate that COVID-19 vaccination diminishes the risk of infection and severe complications in pregnant women. The CDC recommends vaccination for pregnant, nursing, and preconception individuals, emphasizing its safety and absence of adverse effects on fertility (Kalidas, 2021). Specific Symptoms or Prevention Methods Identified Pregnant women afflicted with COVID-19 face elevated risks of severe complications and adverse fetal outcomes. Preventative measures encompass the use of disinfectants, regular handwashing, adherence to social distancing guidelines, and avoidance of crowded spaces. Embracing healthy lifestyle choices contributes significantly to overall well-being (Abrams et al., 2022). Determination of Topic Information The investigation relies on academic, peer-reviewed articles, employing the CRAAP test to evaluate source credibility. Predominantly, articles from .gov and .org domains, including those from the CDC, were utilized to ensure reliability. Cross-referencing with reputable sources further corroborated the information (Lotfi et al., 2020). Conclusion Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, misinformation pertaining to vaccination, particularly among pregnant women, proliferates across social media platforms like Reddit. A critical evaluation of information originating from reputable sources is imperative to debunk false assumptions regarding COVID-19 vaccination (Abrams et al., 2022). References Abrams, S., Delf, L., Drummond, R., & Kelly, K. (2022). The CRAAP Test. Open. Oregon State. education. https://open.oregonstate.education/goodargument/chapter/craap-test/ Blakeway, H., Prasad, S., Kalafat, E., Heath, P. T., Ladhani, S. N., Doare, K. L., Magee, L. A., O’brien, P., Rezvani, A., Dadelszen, P. von, & Khalil, A. (2021). COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: Coverage and safety. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.007 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Esparrago-Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The effectiveness of CRAAP test in evaluating credibility of sources. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 1(2), 1–14. https://i-jte.org/index.php/journal/article/view/25 Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy: Part I. Clinical presentations and untoward outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 84(9), 813–820. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcma.0000000000000595 Lee, W.-L., Yang, S.-T., Tsui, K.-H., Chang, C.-C., & Lee, F.-K. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy: Part II. Implications for maternal and child health. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 84(9), 821–825. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcma.0000000000000608 Lotfi, M., Hamblin, M. R., & Rezaei, N. (2020). COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities. Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry, 508, 254–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.05.044 Wang, C.-L., liu, Y.-Y., Wu, C.-H., Wang, C.-Y., Wang, C.-H., & Long, C.-Y. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on Pregnancy. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(3), 763–767. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.49923 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Wei, S. Q., Bilodeau-Bertrand, M., Liu, S., & Auger, N. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 193(16), cmaj.202604. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.202604 Also Read BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 7 Media and Internet: Accurate vs Inaccurate Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Read More Load More

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (6) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Patient Profiles and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Alexa’s Profile: Alexa, a robust 64-year-old woman, experienced her first childbirth at the age of 20 and entered menopause at 58. Following menopause, she underwent estrogen replacement treatment for approximately six years, leading to weight gain. Her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 37, and Alexa had her first menstruation at 13. Risk Factors Breast Cancer Risk Family history of breast cancer Doubled likelihood Early onset of menstruation   Estrogen replacement therapy 3.1% in next 5 years   12.1% lifetime risk Recommendation for Alexa: Alexa is advised to continue estrogen replacement treatment for breast cancer risk reduction (Manyonda et al., 2022). Despite her elevated risk due to family history, stress management is crucial. Alexa should adopt a healthy lifestyle by maintaining a proper diet, avoiding alcohol, staying active, and undergoing regular breast cancer screenings every 40 days. Paula’s Profile: Paula, at 71, is battling bladder cancer that has spread to her ovaries and lymphatic vessels. Her sister underwent breast cancer treatment three years ago, and her mother succumbed to lung cancer. Two paternal uncles and her maternal grandma also faced cancer. Risk Factors Breast Cancer Risk Family history of breast cancer Estimated 8.3% in next 5 years Sister’s BRCA1 mutation     18.2% lifetime risk Recommendation for Paula: Given Paula’s extensive family history, vigilance is crucial. Diagnostic screenings are recommended, especially with her sister’s BRCA1 mutation. Additionally, chemotherapy for bladder cancer is advised (Mar & Dayyani, 2019). June’s Profile: June, aged 58, undergoes regular mammograms. Her family history includes her aunt’s breast cancer and her mother’s brain tumor. June’s blood pressure and cholesterol levels are high, and she has fragile bones. Risk Factors Breast Cancer Risk Family history of breast cancer 2.6% in next 5 years High blood pressure and cholesterol   Oral contraceptive history     14.6% lifetime risk Recommendation for June: Due to oral contraceptive history, June should undergo regular mammograms with a 7% increased breast cancer risk (Bardaweel et al., 2019). Controlling hypertension and cholesterol through the DASH eating plan is advised, along with a diet rich in calcium to combat osteoporosis. BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Nora’s Profile: Nora, 51, hasn’t reached menopause, and her family history includes breast and colon cancer. Risk Factors Breast Cancer Risk Family history of breast and colon cancer 3% in next 5 years   23.8% lifetime risk Recommendation for Nora: Nora should undergo BRCA1 testing due to her family history. Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet, are crucial. Regular examinations and addressing risk factors, including age at first pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, are essential (Bardaweel et al., 2019; Sahin et al., 2019). References Aurin, J., Thorlacius, H., & Butt, S. T. (2020). Age at first childbirth and breast cancer survival: a prospective cohort study. BMC Research Notes, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4864-1 Bardaweel, S. K., Akour, A. A., Al-Muhaissen, S., AlSalamat, H. A., & Ammar, K. (2019). Oral contraceptive and breast cancer: Do benefits outweigh the risks? A case–control study from Jordan. BMC Women’s Health, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0770-x Łukasiewicz, S., Czeczelewski, M., Forma, A., Baj, J., Sitarz, R., & Stanisławek, A. (2021). Breast Cancer—epidemiology, risk factors, classification, prognostic markers, and current treatment strategies—An Updated Review. Cancers, 13(17), 4287. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174287 Manyonda, I., Sinai Talaulikar, V., Pirhadi, R., Ward, J., Banerjee, D., & Onwude, J. (2022). Could perimenopausal estrogen prevent breast cancer? Exploring the differential effects of estrogen-only versus combined Hormone Replacement Therapy. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 14(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4646 Mar, K., & Dayyani, F. (2019). Chemotherapy for bladder cancer. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537121/ National Institute of Health. (n.d.). Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. https://bcrisktool.cancer.gov/ BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Sahin, I., Bilir, B., Ali, S., Sahin, K., & Kucuk, O. (2019). Soy isoflavones in integrative oncology: Increased efficacy and decreased toxicity of cancer therapy. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 18, 153473541983531. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735419835310 Also Read BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 6 Patient Case Study Profiles – Cancer Causes Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Read More Load More

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (5) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Genetics Laboratory Services The Genetics Laboratory offers a comprehensive range of services covering all facets of chromosome studies, including congenital diseases, prenatal diagnostics, and hematologic or oncologic conditions. The laboratory not only provides technical guidance but also offers consultative expertise to ensure high-quality patient care while promoting interprofessional collaboration. This assessment will delve into various aspects such as the inheritance and genetic changes, description of the genetic procedure determining gender, interpretation of karyotype results, exploration of the effects of chromosomal abnormalities on body systems, and a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of genetic testing along with its impact on patients. Chances of Inheriting Autosomal Traits The probability of inheriting autosomal recessive diseases significantly increases when both parents are carriers or heterozygous, with a 25% likelihood of transmitting the condition to their offspring. According to the Punnett square model, there is a 50% chance for each parent to pass on the allele responsible for the illness (Gulani & Weiler, 2020). The probability multiplication rule further suggests a 50% chance for both the mother and the father to transmit their disease allele (Gulani & Weiler, 2020). Inheriting two disease alleles following a recessive pattern leads to the manifestation of an autosomal recessive disease, in accordance with Mendel’s Law of Segregation. Pedigree analysis aids in identifying the inheritance pattern within families, where autosomal recessive disorders typically affect both males and females equally. This pattern may exhibit generational skipping, and affected individuals are often offspring of unaffected carriers. Horizontal transmission might elucidate the presence of afflicted individuals across multiple generations (Gulani & Weiler, 2020). Determining the Gender in a Lab Scenario In a hypothetical scenario, Sandra, a 28-year-old sickle cell anemia patient in her third trimester of pregnancy, underwent prenatal genetic testing. Sickle cell disease (SCD) stems from a monogenetic condition triggered by a single base-pair point mutation in the β-globin gene. The phenotypic spectrum of the disease encompasses recurrent pain episodes, chronic hemolytic anemia, and heightened susceptibility to infections (Inusa et al., 2019). While SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder unaffected by gender, studies suggest gender-related disparities in SCD mortality and morbidity among adult patients, with higher mortality rates observed in men (Ceglie et al., 2019). Interpretation of Karyotype Results Karyotype testing serves as a pivotal tool in the identification and management of various diseases. Positive results signify unexpected alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes, whereas negative results affirm the absence of such mutations. Abnormal findings can offer insights into the health status of the patient or the child based on the identified chromosomal anomalies (Shi et al., 2019). Genetic Counselor’s Insights Karyotype testing, though capable of detecting genetic mutations on the 11th chromosome, may not entirely diagnose sickle cell anemia and thus necessitates supplementary tests including genetic and prenatal screening. Pros and Cons of Genetic Testing The realm of genetic testing for rare diseases presents ethical dilemmas pertinent to individuals, organizations, and healthcare systems (Kruse et al., 2022). Positive Aspects: Advancements in rapid genetic diagnosis, particularly facilitated by next-generation sequencing technologies. Early and precise diagnosis mitigates the requirement for invasive, expensive tests. BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Negative Aspects: Ethical quandaries such as privacy issues associated with disease disclosure to relatives. Ethical considerations surrounding post-mortem genetic testing counseling. Laboratories may exhibit limited interest in genetic testing for sporadic disorders due to low test volume and high developmental costs (Kruse et al., 2022). Impact of Positive and Negative Ramifications The identification of a mutation on the 11th chromosome empowers Sandra to make informed decisions regarding the treatment of her child and future pregnancies. However, it also poses a potential risk to her other children due to the heightened likelihood of inheriting sickle cell anemia (Shah & Krishnamurti, 2021). Conclusion Genetic testing stands as a valuable instrument for comprehending an individual’s genetic composition and detecting mutations predisposing to specific medical conditions. Karyotype examination holds paramount importance in the timely detection and management of diseases. While genetic testing offers numerous benefits such as prompt disease detection, the ethical challenges associated with identification remain a significant concern. References Ceglie, G., Di Mauro, M., Tarissi De Jacobis, I., de Gennaro, F., Quaranta, M., Baronci, C., Villani, A., & Palumbo, G. (2019). Gender-Related differences in sickle cell disease in a pediatric cohort: A single-center retrospective study. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2019.00140 Gulani, A., & Weiler, T. (2020). Genetics, Autosomal Recessive. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546620/ Inusa, B., Hsu, L., Kohli, N., Patel, A., Ominu-Evbota, K., Anie, K., & Atoyebi, W. (2019). Sickle cell disease—genetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment. International Journal of Neonatal Screening, 5(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns5020020 Kruse, J., Mueller, R., Aghdassi, A. A., Lerch, M. M., & Salloch, S. (2022). Genetic testing for rare diseases: A systematic review of ethical aspects. Frontiers in Genetics, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.701988 Shah, N., & Krishnamurti, L. (2021). Evidence-based minireview: In young children with severe sickle cell disease, do the benefits of HLA-identical sibling donor HCT outweigh the risks? Hematology, 2021(1), 190–195. https://doi.org/10.1182/hematology.2021000322 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Shi, Y., Ma, J., Xue, Y., Wang, J., Yu, B., & Wang, T. (2019). The assessment of combined karyotype analysis and chromosomal microarray in pregnant women of advanced maternal age: a multicenter study. Annals of Translational Medicine, 7(14), 318–318. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.06.63 Also Read BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 5 Genetics Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Read More Load More

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (4) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Digestion Lab Food digestion constitutes a complex physiological process involving a combination of physiochemical mechanisms (Livovsky et al., 2020). Triggered by food intake, this process entails the breakdown of food into simpler components, absorption of nutrients, transportation to relevant organs for absorption, and the elimination of waste through the anus or bladder (Sensoy, 2021). Exploration of Digestion Lab This article delves into the Digestion Lab, specifically addressing the estimation of an individual’s daily caloric intake, discussing normative values, and providing a percentage calculation along with explanations. Additionally, it offers details on serving size, calories, sodium, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins, and minerals in a chosen food item. An analysis based on labeled packaging descriptions, along with the advantages and disadvantages of the items, is also presented. Daily Caloric Intake Calories denote the energy derived from food breakdown, crucial for various bodily functions. The recommended daily caloric intake is around 2000 calories for women and 2500 for men, with variations based on factors such as age, metabolism, and physical activity (Kolte et al., 2022). Adequate calorie intake is essential for maintaining health, as insufficient intake can lead to lethargy, while excess intake can contribute to obesity, heart disease, and arthritis (Osilla & Sharma, 2019). Pregnant or lactating women may require increased calorie intake to support fetal and placental tissue growth (Most et al., 2019). Percentage of Daily Calories In the evaluation of Crazy Richard’s Peanut Butter as the selected food item, the recommended serving size is 1-2 tbsp (32g) with 180 calories. While the fat content is 16g and protein is 8g, it slightly falls below the recommended fat intake. Emphasizing the significance of maintaining a daily fat percentage of 25-35% for a healthy heart, as recommended by the American Heart Association, the article also provides information on calcium, iron, and protein requirements based on USDA guidelines (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020). Pros and Cons of the Serving Size Crazy Richard’s Crunchy Peanut Butter, being a protein-rich option, is suggested in 2 tbsp servings. While it enhances the flavor of various foods, excessive consumption may contribute to weight gain due to its polyunsaturated fat content. The disclosure of 180 calories per serving on the label signifies rich nutritional value. Pros and Cons of the Food’s Sodium, Carbohydrate, Sugar, Protein, Vitamins, and Minerals The label analysis reveals 16g of fat and 8g of protein, slightly below recommended amounts. The peanut butter contains 0% sodium, 2g sugar, 5g total carbs (3g dietary fiber, 2g sugar), and provides essential minerals as per USDA guidelines. Pros include nutritional minerals, while cons may arise when combined with sugary foods. Label Analysis and Food Item Pros and Cons Peanut butter, a versatile ingredient, offers nutritional benefits but may contribute to excessive sugar intake in certain preparations, leading to potential health concerns. Addressing Misleading Packaging To combat misleading packaging, the article advocates for ethical considerations, emphasizing consumer rights and the necessity for accurate information on food labels to promote a healthier population (Schifferstein et al., 2021). BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Conclusion In conclusion, the Digestion Lab assessment focused on daily caloric intake, examined a selected food item (Crazy Richard’s Crunchy Peanut Butter), and discussed its pros and cons. The article underscored the importance of accurate food labels for consumer awareness and health. References Kolte, A., Mahajan, Y., & Vasa, L. (2022). Balanced diet and daily calorie consumption: Consumer attitude during the COVID-19 pandemic from an emerging economy. PLOS ONE, 17(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0270843 Livovsky, D. M., Pribic, T., & Azpiroz, F. (2020). Food, eating, and the gastrointestinal tract. Nutrients, 12(4), 986. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040986 Most, J., Dervis, S., Haman, F., Adamo, K. B., & Redman, L. M. (2019). Energy intake requirements in pregnancy. Nutrients, 11(8), 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081812 Osilla, E. V., & Sharma, S. (2019, June 18). Calories. Nih.gov; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499909/ Schifferstein, H. N. J., de Boer, A., & Lemke, M. (2021). Conveying information through food packaging: A literature review comparing legislation with consumer perception. Journal of Functional Foods, 86, 104734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2021.104734 Sensoy, I. (2021). A review on the food digestion in the digestive tract and the used in vitro models. Current Research in Food Science, 4, 308–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2021.04.004 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020). Protein Foods | MyPlate. Www.myplate.gov. https://www.myplate.gov/eat-healthy/protein-foods Also Read BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 4 Digestion Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab Read More Load More

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (3) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Urinary Analysis: Significance and Clinical Implications The examination of urine, termed urinalysis, is a vital diagnostic procedure essential for evaluating various conditions affecting the urinary tract, kidneys, or associated morbidities like hypertension or diabetes (Mayo Clinic, 2021). This article aims to elucidate the importance of urinary analysis and its clinical implications, emphasizing the consequences of overlooking this fundamental examination. Furthermore, it will discuss different types of diabetes and their respective management strategies, along with exploring the reasons and consequences of detecting blood traces in urine. Purpose and Significance of Urinary Analysis Urinalysis, a comprehensive evaluation of urine, constitutes an integral component of routine medical assessments conducted for health evaluations and disease identification (Mayo Clinic, 2021). This analysis proves crucial when patients exhibit symptoms such as dysuria, hematuria, diabetes, renal complications, hepatic disorders, or other urinary anomalies encountered in conditions like pregnancy. By discerning the underlying causes of specific symptoms and indications of associated illnesses, urinalysis aids in prompt diagnosis and subsequent management. Urinalysis encompasses three main methods: a physical examination assessing color, volume, and density; a chemical examination identifying various components; and a microscopic examination detecting microorganisms, cells, and crystals in urine (Milani & Jialal, 2021). Samples obtained from urinalysis can unveil over 220 diseases, underscoring its significance in disease detection, including diabetes, hypertension, renal ailments, or cardiac failure. Diabetes and its Classification Diabetes, a chronic ailment significantly impacting individuals’ health and well-being, manifests as insulin dysfunction affecting insulin production or utilization (World Health Organization, 2022). This condition predisposes individuals to severe complications such as renal dysfunction, cardiovascular events, visual impairment, and lower extremity amputations (World Health Organization, 2022). The primary types of diabetes include type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (Saeedi et al., 2019). T1D stems from defective insulin-producing cells, while T2D is characterized by inefficient insulin utilization, often exacerbated by obesity and sedentary lifestyles. Management of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Managing diabetes effectively entails a combination of pharmacotherapy and self-care practices. T1D necessitates insulin therapy or gene-based interventions, including beta cell replacement (Tan et al., 2019). Conversely, T2D management focuses on maintaining optimal body weight, controlling hypertension, adopting a physically active lifestyle, adhering to a balanced diet, and incorporating insulin therapy as needed (Tan et al., 2019). Reasons for Hematuria The presence of blood in urine can stem from the compromised integrity of renal blood vessels due to hyperglycemia. Prolonged hyperglycemia may lead to chronic organ dysfunction and failure, affecting vital organs such as the kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, and blood vessels (Abebe et al., 2019). Hematuria may also signify underlying conditions like renal disorders, ureteral abnormalities, or prostatic pathologies, contributing to complications such as visual impairment, cardiovascular complications, or extremity ulcers (Abebe et al., 2019; American Diabetes Association, 2021). Patient Case Study Anna, a 62-year-old resident of Houston, sought medical attention at the kidney center’s outpatient department, presenting with elevated blood pressure and renal discomfort. Her medical history indicated an 18-year history of T2D and hypertension. Further evaluation included renal ultrasound and comprehensive urinalysis. According to the findings, Anna’s bladder exhibited normal walls, with pre- and post-void volumes of 684 and 152 ml, respectively. The left kidney displayed a cortical thickness of 2.0 cm and a size of 10.2 cm, with a solitary cyst measuring 1.2 cm in the lower pole. While simple renal cysts may not necessitate immediate intervention, they pose a risk of renal impairment, potentially leading to hypertension or renal insufficiency. Urinalysis Results Patient: Anne Hathaway Test Level pH 5.8 Urea 27 Creatinine 1.6 Bilirubin 8.1 Urobilinogen 4.2 Elevated levels of urobilinogen and creatinine suggest an increased risk of hepatic and renal dysfunction. References Abebe, M., Adane, T., Kefyalew, K., Munduno, T., Fasil, A., Biadgo, B., Ambachew, S., & Shahnawaz, S. (2019). Variation of urine parameters among diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i1.9 American Diabetes Association. (2021). 11. Chronic kidney disease and risk management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care, 45(Supplement_1), S175–S184. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-s011 Lawrence, J. M., Divers, J., Isom, S., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Pihoker, C., Marcovina, S. M., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Hamman, R. F., Dolan, L., Dabelea, D., Pettitt, D. J., & Liese, A. D. (2021). Trends in prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in the US, 2001-2017. JAMA, 326(8), 717. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.11165 Mayo Clinic. (2021, October 14). Urinalysis – Mayo Clinic. Www.mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907#:~:text=It Milani, D. A. Q., & Jialal, I. (2021, May 9). Urinalysis. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557685/ Norris, J. M., Johnson, R. K., & Stene, L. C. (2020). Type 1 diabetes—early life origins and changing epidemiology. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(3), 226–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(19)30412-7 Saeedi, P., Petersohn, I., Salpea, P., Malanda, B., Karuranga, S., Unwin, N., Colagiuri, S., Guariguata, L., Motala, A. A., Ogurtsova, K., Shaw, J. E., Bright, D., & Williams, R. (2019). Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045. Also Read BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 3 Urinary Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Read More BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab Read More Integrative Perspective: Advantages and Challenges Read More Load More

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab

Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Neuromuscular Lab The Neuromuscular Lab, located within the University of Michigan Department of Surgery, is dedicated to studying peripheral nerve injuries and the neural control of prosthetic limbs. Peripheral nerves possess a unique ability to regenerate, unlike central nervous system neural cells. Research at the Neuromuscular Lab focuses on understanding the regeneration process, developing innovative technologies, and improving surgical techniques to enhance patient outcomes after peripheral nerve damage (University of Michigan Department of Surgery Research, 2019). Comprehensive Eye Examination A comprehensive eye exam involves various tests to assess vision and detect eye conditions. These tests utilize different lenses, specialized tools, and examination under various lighting conditions. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends such exams at age 40, especially for those without apparent vision issues (American Academy of Ophthalmology, n.d.). Regular eye exams, occurring annually or biennially for individuals aged 60 or older, and for specific groups like contact lens wearers, are crucial (Mayo Clinic, 2019). Tests such as eye muscle evaluations, visual acuity tests, and refraction assessments contribute to evaluating ocular health comprehensively (Mayo Clinic, 2019). Routine eye exams are pivotal in preventing or minimizing damage from certain eye conditions; more than 75 percent of sight loss and blindness is preventable through appropriate treatment or lifestyle changes (Toli et al., 2021). Recent research highlights mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) transporter deficiencies contributing to neuromuscular dysfunction (Al Shamsi et al., 2021). Importance of Reflex Measurement in Diagnostic Eye Exams Reflex measurement is essential in diagnostic eye exams for localizing neuromuscular diseases. It aids accurate bedside diagnosis, offering insights not attainable through other modalities like clinical neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigations (Palmer et al., 2020). Consequences of Neglecting Reflex Measurement Omitting reflex measurement during eye exams can lead to undetected infections and diseases, delaying intervention and potentially exacerbating ocular issues contributing to brain injuries (Stuart et al., 2020). Patient Examinations Patient Elena Age 36 Complaint Red eye and pain Blood Pressure 140/90 mm Hg Past Ocular History Similar episodes reported Eye Test Result Diagnosed with reduced vision Possible Resolution Recommended to avoid high beam lights BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Patient Manav Dutt Age 45 Complaint Blurred vision, frequent headaches Blood Pressure 140/90 mm Hg Past Ocular and Medical History Hypertension, chain smoking Eye Test Result Diagnosed with partial blindness due to chemical injury Possible Resolution Immediate intervention recommended, referral to an ophthalmologist BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Patient Spencer Hogle Age 36 Occupation Factory worker Complaint Eye bleeding Blood Pressure 113/80 mm Hg Past Ocular and Medical History No similar issues reported Eye Test Result Diagnosed with corrosive chemical metal damage Possible Resolution Immediate surgery by an expert ophthalmologist required Conclusion Regular eye exams, including reflex measurement, are vital for identifying and addressing ocular issues. Timely examinations help prevent overlooked problems and ensure prompt intervention. References Al Shamsi, B., Al Murshedi, F., Al Habsi, A., & Al-Thihli, K. (2021). Hypoketotic hypoglycemia without neuromuscular complications in patients with SLC25A32 deficiency. European Journal of Human Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00995-7 American Academy of Ophthalmology. (n.d.). Eye exam – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/eye-exam/about/pac-20384655 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 2 Neuromuscular Lab Mayo Clinic. (2019). Eye exam – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/eye-exam/about/pac-20384655 Palmer, J. J., Jones, C., Surur, E. I., & Kelly, A. H. (2020). Understanding the role of the diagnostic “Reflex” in the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 5(2), 52. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020052 Stuart, S., Parrington, L., Martini, D., Peterka, R., Chesnutt, J., & King, L. (2020). The measurement of eye movements in mild traumatic brain injury: A structured review of an emerging area. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.00005 Toli, A., Perente, A., & Labiris, G. (2021). Evaluation of the red reflex: An overview for the pediatrician. World Journal of Methodology, 11(5), 263–277. https://doi.org/10.5662/wjm.v11.i5.263 University of Michigan Department of Surgery Research. (2019). Neuromuscular Lab | Surgery Research | Michigan Medicine. Surgery Research. https://medicine.umich.edu/dept/surgery-research/research-strengths/musculoskeletal-regenerative-medicine/neuromuscular-lab

BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab

Name Capella University BIO FPX 1000 Human Biology Prof. Name Date Cardiovascular System Laboratory Analysis The Cardiovascular System Laboratory delves into heart function systematically, scrutinizing the impact of blood pressure on cardiac performance. This involves dissecting the ramifications of blood pressure fluctuations on patients, as evidenced by laboratory findings. This article elucidates standard blood pressure levels, associated thresholds of concern, optimal heart rates, and parameters delineating a healthy heart rhythm. Moreover, it investigates the nexus between heart rate and blood pressure, interprets cardiovascular laboratory outcomes, and proposes lifestyle adjustments grounded in the laboratory assessments. Understanding Blood Pressure Blood pressure denotes the force exerted as blood courses from the heart to the body. Diastolic pressure characterizes the force exerted as the heart expels blood, whereas systolic pressure represents the resting pressure amid cardiac cycles. The optimal blood pressure spectrum spans approximately 90/60 mm Hg to 120/80 mm Hg (National Health Service, 2019). Hypertension manifests when persistently elevated blood pressure surpasses 130/80 mm Hg, often amenable to lifestyle modifications. Blood pressure readings in the range of 140/90 mm Hg or beyond necessitate immediate medical intervention and attention (National Health Service, 2019). Understanding Heart Rate Heart rate delineates the count of heartbeats per minute requisite to fulfill the body’s oxygen requisites (Harvard Health Publishing, 2020). It is noteworthy that an escalated heart rate doesn’t invariably denote high blood pressure (Beckerman, 2002). Resting heart rate mirrors the heart’s function during bodily rest, with 60 to 100 beats per minute construed as a healthy bracket (American Heart Association, 2021). Maximum heart rate, attained during rigorous activity, can be computed using the formula 220 minus the individual’s age (American Heart Association, 2021). Irregular heart rates, surpassing 120-140 bpm or plummeting below 60 bpm, instigate concerns regarding the individual’s well-being (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Correlation between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Persistently elevated blood pressure poses a notable health hazard and serves as a risk element for cardiovascular maladies. Elevated heart rate frequently accompanies hypertensive individuals and is regarded as a contributor to hypertension and other cardiovascular ailments (Dalal et al., 2019). Positive correlations exist between heightened heart rate and cardiovascular morbidity, potentially culminating in premature mortality (Goorakani et al., 2020). Cardiovascular Findings in Patients and Lifestyle Enhancement Patient 1: Tanya Age: 40 Complaint: Frequent headaches Blood Pressure Test: 125/80 mm Hg (pre-hypertension) Heart rate Test: 66-72 bpm (normal) Patient 2: Caroline Mendoza Age: 45 Complaint: Persistent high blood pressure Blood Pressure Test: 140/90 mm Hg (intense high blood pressure) Heart rate Test: 135 bpm (alarming situation) Conclusion Blood pressure, epitomizing the force exerted by the heart during blood propulsion, ideally remains beneath 120/90 mmHg, with persistent elevations indicative of high blood pressure. Heart rate, denoting the rhythm at which the heart contracts in a minute, exhibits variances in resting and maximum thresholds, with the latter contingent on the individual’s age. Hypertension poses a substantial health peril and serves as a contributing factor to cardiovascular afflictions. References American Heart Association. (2021). Know your target heart rates for exercise, losing weight, and health. www.heart.org Beckerman, J. (2002). Your Heart Rate. WebMD. www.webmd.com Dalal, J., Dasbiswas, A., Sathyamurthy, I., Maddury, S. R., Kerkar, P., Bansal, S., Thomas, J., Mandal, S. C., Mookerjee, S., Natarajan, S., Kumar, V., Chandra, N., Khan, A., Vijayakumar, R., & Sawhney, J. P. S. (2019). Heart rate in hypertension: review and expert opinion. International Journal of Hypertension, 2019, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2087064 BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab Goorakani, Y., Sedigh Rahimabadi, M., Dehghan, A., Kazemi, M., Chijan, M. R., Bijani, M., Shahraki, H. R., Davoodi, A., Farjam, M., & Homayounfar, R. (2020). Correlation of resting heart rate with anthropometric factors and serum biomarkers in a population-based study: Fasa PERSIAN cohort study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01594-y Harvard Health Publishing. (2020). What your heart rate is telling you – Harvard Health. www.health.harvard.edu BIO FPX 1000 Assessment 1 Cardiovascular System Lab Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). 2 easy, accurate ways to measure your heart rate. www.mayoclinic.org National Health Service. (2019). What is blood pressure?

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