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PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 5 Tonya’s Case: Ethics and Professional Codes

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 5 Tonya’s Case: Ethics and Professional Codes Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (45) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 5 Tonya’s Case: Ethics and Professional Codes Name Capella University PHI FPX 3200 Ethics in Health Care Prof. Name Date Tonya’s Case: Ethical Considerations in End-of-Life Care Ethical Principles and Moral Theories Tonya Archer, a teenage patient, underwent surgery for an ACL tear but experienced cardiac arrest during transfer, resulting in brain death due to compromised blood flow. Despite medical advice to discontinue life support due to futility, her parents insisted on continuing therapy, citing signs of life such as body warmth and a beating heart. This case presents ethical and moral challenges inherent in end-of-life care situations. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are central to Tonya’s case. Autonomy entails a patient’s right to make treatment decisions, with Tonya’s parents advocating for her in this instance. However, parental autonomy must not override the duty to avoid futile or harmful treatment. Healthcare providers are obligated to act beneficently, prioritizing the patient’s best interests. Given Tonya’s irreversible condition and the exacerbation of her suffering with ongoing treatment, the medical team concluded that prolonging therapy is not in her best interest. Acting without malice, healthcare professionals must refrain from causing further harm, which would occur with continued therapy. Justice requires unbiased decision-making, independent of socioeconomic factors, with medical judgment guiding the medical team’s decision-making process (Nandifa et al., 2020). Moral Theory for the Case Utilitarianism, a moral framework aiming to maximize overall pleasure and minimize suffering, is pertinent to Tonya’s situation. Decisions are deemed ethical under utilitarianism if they maximize happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of individuals. Applying utilitarian principles involves weighing the consequences of maintaining or discontinuing Tonya’s life support. With Tonya diagnosed as brain-dead and no prospect of benefiting from further treatment, medical consensus favors discontinuing life support (Marseille & Kahn, 2019). Utilitarian analysis necessitates evaluating potential outcomes. While removing Tonya from life support would undoubtedly cause distress to her family, it would also relieve her from prolonged suffering. Conversely, sustaining life support would prolong Tonya’s agony without improving her well-being. From a utilitarian perspective, discontinuing life support maximizes overall happiness and minimizes suffering, despite emotional repercussions (Vearrier & Henderson, 2021). Application of Professional Code of Ethics Professional codes of ethics provide guidance to healthcare practitioners in fulfilling their obligations to patients. The American Medical Association’s Code of Medical Ethics offers relevant principles for this scenario. Non-maleficence justifies the recommendation to discontinue Tonya’s life support to prevent prolonged suffering. Autonomy grants patients the right to make treatment decisions, upheld through surrogate decision-making by Tonya’s parents, who must act in her best interests. Beneficence obliges healthcare professionals to act in the patient’s best interests, affirmed by the conclusion that further treatment offers no benefit to Tonya (Ebbs et al., 2020). The medical team’s decision aligns with professional ethics, emphasizing beneficence, autonomy, and non-maleficence. While Tonya’s parents retain the right to advocate for her, the medical team is responsible for providing treatment based on sound medical judgment and ethical standards. Use of Organizational Documents Organizational documents, such as mission and value statements, establish a framework for decision-making in healthcare settings. The hospital’s mission prioritizes quality care and patient well-being, supporting the decision to discontinue Tonya’s life support to alleviate her suffering. Values like integrity, respect, and compassion underscore the humane nature of this decision, considering Tonya’s irreversible condition (Minicuci et al., 2020). Hospital protocols for end-of-life care likely guided the decision-making process, ensuring consultation with ethical committees and involvement of surrogate decision-makers. By adhering to organizational guidelines, the medical team acts in alignment with the hospital’s commitment to patient-centered care and professional integrity (Luna-Meza et al., 2021). Role of Accrediting Bodies Accreditation agencies, such as The Joint Commission, uphold care standards in healthcare institutions. Compliance with these standards ensures the delivery of safe and quality care. The hospital’s accreditation status validates decisions regarding Tonya’s care. Accreditation criteria include protocols for end-of-life care, validating the medical team’s decision to discontinue life support as consistent with industry best practices (Gulati et al., 2021). Even with accreditation, adherence to established guidelines remains crucial in decision-making, particularly in end-of-life scenarios. The medical team’s decision aligns with ethical imperatives and patient-centered care, ensuring the delivery of safe and compassionate treatment (Foglia et al., 2019). Conclusion Navigating ethical complexities in end-of-life care necessitates balancing patient autonomy, beneficence, and professional integrity. Despite presenting challenging moral dilemmas, adherence to ethical principles and professional standards guides healthcare practitioners and organizations in making decisions aligned with patients’ best interests. References Ebbs, P., Carver, H., & Moritz, D. (2020). Principlism in paramedicine: An examination of applied healthcare ethics. Journal of Paramedic Practice, 12(8), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.12968/jpar.2020.12.8.cpd1 Foglia, M. B., Lowery, J., Sharpe, V. A., Tompkins, P., & Fox, E. (2019). A comprehensive approach to eliciting, documenting, and honoring patient wishes for care near the end of life: The veteran’s health administration’s life-sustaining treatment decisions initiative. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 45(1), 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjq.2018.04.007 Gulati, M., Levy, P. D., Mukherjee, D., Amsterdam, E., Bhatt, D. L., Birtcher, K. K., Blankstein, R., Boyd, J., Bullock-Palmer, R. P., Conejo, T., Diercks, D. B., Gentile, F., Greenwood, J. P., Hess, E. P., Hollenberg, S. M., Jaber, W. A., Jneid, H., Joglar, J. A., Morrow, D. A., & O’Connor, R. E. (2021). 2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 78(22). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.07.053 Häyry, M. (2020). Just better utilitarianism. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 30(2), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0963180120000882 PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 5 Tonya’s Case: Ethics and Professional Codes Luna-Meza, A., Godoy-Casasbuenas, N., Calvache, J. A., Díaz-Amado, E., Gempeler Rueda, F. E., Morales, O., Leal, F., Gómez-Restrepo, C., & de Vries, E. (2021). Decision making in the end-of-life

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 4 Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical?

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 4 Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical? Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (44) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 4 Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical? Name Capella University PHI FPX 3200 Ethics in Health Care Prof. Name Date Robbing the Deceased: Examining the Ethics of Organ Conscription Organ transplantation represents a critical medical intervention for individuals suffering from organ failure. However, the persistent shortage of donor organs poses a significant challenge, resulting in prolonged waiting lists and compromised health outcomes. To tackle this issue, the concept of organ conscription has emerged, involving the procurement of organs from deceased individuals without their explicit consent (Pemberton, 2022). Nevertheless, this practice raises profound ethical dilemmas concerning the autonomy and dignity of the deceased, alongside concerns about fairness and equity in organ allocation systems. This analysis delves into the ethical considerations surrounding conscripted organ procurement and emphasizes the necessity of regulating the availability of donated organs. Moral Implications of Organ Conscription Organ transplantation holds immense potential for saving countless lives annually. However, the persisting shortage of donor organs results in prolonged suffering for those awaiting transplantation. In the United States alone, over 100,000 individuals await organ transplantation, with kidneys, livers, hearts, lungs, and pancreases being the most commonly transplanted organs (American Transplant Foundation, 2019). Organ conscription, while proposed as a solution to this scarcity, raises ethical concerns regarding the dignity and consent of the deceased (Zambrano, 2023). Moreover, there exists a risk of exploiting vulnerable populations without adequate safeguards, potentially compromising the validity of informed consent and introducing unfairness in organ distribution (Martínez-López et al., 2022). Comparative Analysis of Organ Donation Policies Diverse approaches to organ donation policies exist worldwide, each entailing distinct ethical considerations concerning informed consent and patient autonomy. In the United States, organ donation operates on an opt-in system, necessitating explicit registration of consent from individuals prior to donation. This approach underscores the importance of respecting patient autonomy and ensuring informed decision-making (Ahmad et al., 2019). Ethical Dimensions of Fairness and Justice Access to organ transplantation is indispensable for individuals facing organ failure. Nonetheless, the limited availability of organs engenders disparities in access and allocation practices, exacerbating existing inequalities. In the absence of policies for pre-death consent in the US, harvesting organs from the deceased raises ethical and moral quandaries, potentially exacerbating disparities in access to life-saving treatments (Golden, 2022). Strategies for Enhancing Public Acceptance Addressing the scarcity of available organs necessitates bolstering public acceptance of organ donation through multifaceted strategies encompassing education, community engagement, legislative reforms, and family discussions (Lewis et al., 2020). Significance of Consent in Organ Donation Consent lies at the heart of ethical organ donation practices, epitomizing the principles of autonomy and self-determination. Regardless of the adopted model, obtaining explicit consent remains imperative to uphold ethical and legal standards (Childress, 2022). Consequences of Absent Donor Consent The absence of donor consent can precipitate violations of individual autonomy, exacerbate disparities in access to transplantation, and raise concerns about justice and equity (Hutchinson et al., 2019). Exploring Alternative Policies for Organ Availability Addressing the dearth of available donor organs entails exploring alternative policies, such as presumed consent models and educational initiatives, to bolster participation rates and streamline organ procurement processes (Steffel et al., 2019). Consequences of Prolonged Organ Shortages Continued organ shortages precipitate adverse consequences, including heightened mortality rates, exacerbated health disparities, and resort to illicit organ markets, underscoring the urgency of adopting effective strategies to bolster organ availability (Neizer et al., 2020). Conclusion In conclusion, while organ transplantation holds immense promise for saving lives, the persistent scarcity of donor organs necessitates ethical scrutiny of alternative procurement methods such as organ conscription. Strategies to bolster public acceptance and explore alternative policies are imperative to address the underlying issues and ensure equitable access to life-saving treatments. References Ahmad, G., & Steege, R. (2019). Ethical and legal issues surrounding organ donation. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537160/ American Transplant Foundation. (2019). Organ donation statistics. American Transplant Foundation. https://www.americantransplantfoundation.org/about-transplant/facts-and-myths/ PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 4 Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical? Childress, J. F. (2022). Robert Veatch’s transplantation ethics: Obtaining and allocating organs from deceased persons. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11017-022-09574-3 Golden, J. M. (2022). Ethical issues in organ transplantation. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470194/ Hutchinson, A., Lederer, S., & Raza, S. (2019). Informed consent in living organ donation. The New England Journal of Medicine, 381(25), 2476–2482. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1807662 Lewis, A., Koukoura, A., Tsianos, G.-I., Gargavanis, A. A., Nielsen, A. A., & Vassiliadis, E. (2020). Organ donation in the US and Europe: The supply vs demand imbalance. Transplantation Reviews, 35(2), 100585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2020.100585 Martínez-López, M. V., Díaz-Cobacho, G., Liedo, B., Rueda, J., & Molina-Pérez, A. (2022). Beyond the altruistic donor: Embedding solidarity in organ procurement policies. Philosophies, 7(5), 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies7050107 Neizer, H., Singh, G. B., Gupta, S., & Singh, S. K. (2020). Addressing donor-organ shortages using extended criteria in lung transplantation. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 9(1), 49–50. https://doi.org/10.21037/acs.2019.10.01 Pemberton, D. (2022). Biographical lives and organ conscription. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 44(1), 75–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11017-022-09603-1 PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 4 Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical? Steffel, L., Ahmad, G., & Banning, A. (2019). Expanding organ donor criteria. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499915/ Also Read PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 4 Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical? Read More PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case Read More PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 2 A Right to Experimental Drugs? Read More PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories Read More Load More

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (43) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case Name Capella University PHI FPX 3200 Ethics in Health Care Prof. Name Date Should Life Support Be Withheld? The Case of Mr. Martinez The decision to limit life support involves intricate ethical considerations and profound emotional ramifications. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice are crucial in guiding such decisions (Cohen, Crespo, & White, 2020). Mr. Martinez’s Case Description Mr. Martinez, diagnosed with COPD, chose not to utilize life support measures like CPR, understanding the limited efficacy of medical interventions. He and his wife signed a “Do Not Resuscitate” (DNR) order, indicating his preference not to receive life support under poor prognoses. This decision is ethically complex, balancing autonomy, which grants Mr. Martinez decision-making authority, and the principle of nonmaleficence, obliging healthcare providers to avoid harm while respecting patient choices (Zhang & Min, 2020). Moral Issues Associated with Limiting Life Support The debate surrounding life support centers on conflicting moral beliefs. Advocates argue against allowing someone to die, while opponents stress the immorality of prolonging suffering. Healthcare providers grapple with ethical dilemmas concerning individual autonomy, beneficence, distributive justice, and familial impact (Barello, Palamenghi, & Graffigna, 2020). Ethical Principles when Considering Limiting Life Support Respecting patient autonomy is paramount, allowing individuals to make informed decisions regarding their care, particularly in end-of-life contexts. Beneficence necessitates assessing whether continued treatment benefits the patient or exacerbates suffering. Nonmaleficence requires healthcare providers to minimize harm, and distributive justice demands equitable allocation of resources (Stein & Song, 2021). Real-World Consequences of Ignoring Ethical Principles Neglecting ethical principles in end-of-life care can lead to violations of patient autonomy, causing emotional distress and undermining trust. Ignoring beneficence may subject patients to unnecessary suffering, while disregarding nonmaleficence can result in harm. Inequities may persist if justice is not upheld, particularly affecting marginalized communities (Childress & Beauchamp, 2021). Important Considerations when Contemplating Limiting Life Support Decisions regarding life support must consider patient autonomy, medical prognosis, quality of life, and legal/ethical obligations. Mr. Martinez’s case underscores the importance of respecting patient autonomy, evaluating prognosis, prioritizing quality of life, and adhering to ethical and legal guidelines (Minello et al., 2019). Recommendation for Decision Making Decisions to limit life support should align with the patient’s medical prognosis and personal values. Healthcare providers should respect patient autonomy and recommend interventions consistent with their goals (Rababa & Al-Rawashdeh, 2020). Conclusion The decision to withhold or limit life support entails navigating intricate ethical considerations. Mr. Martinez’s case underscores the importance of respecting autonomy, considering beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and aligning decisions with patient values. Healthcare providers must ensure compassionate, patient-centered care that upholds dignity and respects individual wishes (Ghiggia et al., 2021). References Barello, S., Palamenghi, L., & Graffigna, G. (2020). The mediating role of the patient health engagement model on the relationship between patient perceived autonomy supportive healthcare climate and health literacy skills. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051741 Blomberg, A.-C., Bisholt, B., & Lindwall, L. (2019). Value conflicts in perioperative practice. Nursing Ethics, 26(7-8), 2213–2224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733018798169 Childress, J. F., & Beauchamp, T. L. (2021). Common morality principles in biomedical ethics: Responses to critics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 31(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0963180121000566 PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case Cohen, I. G., Crespo, A. M., & White, D. B. (2020). Potential legal liability for withdrawing or withholding ventilators during covid-19. JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.5442 Flammer, E., Frank, U., & Steinert, T. (2020). Freedom restrictive coercive measures in forensic psychiatry. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00146 Ghiggia, A., Pierotti, V., Tesio, V., & Bovero, A. (2021). Personality matters: Relationship between personality characteristics, spirituality, demoralization, and perceived quality of life in a sample of end-of-life cancer patients. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06363 Minello, C., George, B., Allano, G., Maindet, C., Burnod, A., & Lemaire, A. (2019). Assessing cancer pain: The first step toward improving patients’ quality of life. Supportive Care in Cancer, 27(8), 3095–3104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-019-04825-x Omidifar, N., bafti, A. H., Shokripour, M., Amini, M., Erana-Rojas, I. E., & Moghimizadeh, M. (2022). Pathologists’ professional lifestyle: Excellence in practice, ethics, education, health promotion, and personal life. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 11. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_470_21 Rababa, M., & Al-Rawashdeh, S. (2020). Critical care nurses’ critical thinking and decision making related to pain management. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 63, 103000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2020.103000 PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case Rezaei Aghdam, A., Watson, J., Cliff, C., & Miah, S. J. (2019). Improving theoretical understanding towards patient-driven healthcare innovation Also Read PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 3 Should We Withhold Life Support? The Mr. Martinez Case Read More PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 2 A Right to Experimental Drugs? Read More PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories Read More PHI FPX 2000 Assessment 4 Contemporary Social Issues Read More Load More

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 2 A Right to Experimental Drugs?

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 2 A Right to Experimental Drugs? Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (42) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 2 A Right to Experimental Drugs? Name Capella University PHI FPX 3200 Ethics in Health Care Prof. Name Date A Right to Experimental Drugs The discourse surrounding the provision of experimental drugs sparks fervent debate among advocates and critics alike. Proponents argue that access to experimental treatments offers hope for patients who have exhausted conventional options, potentially leading to recovery (Bunnik & Aarts, 2019). However, critics raise valid concerns regarding safety, efficacy, and ethical implications, highlighting the need for thorough examination (Bunnik & Aarts, 2019). Central to this discourse is the concept of informed consent, which necessitates patients’ understanding of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties associated with experimental treatments (Dankar et al., 2019). Regulatory bodies such as the FDA play a crucial role in evaluating the safety and efficacy of these treatments, though opinions vary on the balance between caution and access (FDA, 2019). Ethical Theories and Moral Principles Ethical theories and moral principles serve as guiding frameworks in healthcare decision-making. Utilitarianism, deontological ethics, and virtue ethics, along with principles such as autonomy and beneficence, shape responses to healthcare dilemmas (Vearrier & Henderson, 2021). In the context of experimental drugs, these frameworks inform considerations of risk, patient autonomy, and compassionate decision-making (Tseng & Wang, 2021). Integrating these theories and principles is essential for navigating complex healthcare challenges and ensuring ethical decision-making (Mathúna et al., 2020). Principle of Informed Consent Informed consent holds significant importance in the realm of experimental drugs, given their investigational nature. Patients participating in clinical trials must be fully informed about potential risks, benefits, and alternatives (Dankar et al., 2019). This includes understanding the nature of the drug, potential side effects, and the voluntary nature of participation (Varkey, 2021). Informed consent upholds patient autonomy and facilitates ethically sound decision-making in medical research (Dankar et al., 2019). Assumptions Informed consent in experimental drug trials relies on several assumptions, including respect for autonomy, comprehensive information disclosure, and voluntary participation. These assumptions underpin ethical principles and ensure that patients are empowered to make informed choices about their health. Costs and Benefits of Unapproved Experimental Drugs The debate over providing unapproved experimental drugs to patients involves weighing potential benefits against inherent risks (Feustel et al., 2019). While proponents argue for increased access and innovation, critics emphasize safety concerns and the need for rigorous testing (Feustel et al., 2019). Ethical considerations, including risk-benefit assessment and informed consent, underscore the complexity of this issue (Madeddu et al., 2021). Pre-approved Drug Usage for a Wider Patient Pool Expanding the use of pre-approved drugs raises ethical considerations regarding patient autonomy and healthcare resource allocation (White, 2022). Proponents highlight potential benefits for patient outcomes, while opponents caution against over-medication and advocate for individualized treatment approaches (Heydari et al., 2020). Knowledge Gaps and Missing Information Addressing knowledge gaps is essential for informed decision-making regarding unapproved drugs. Research must explore safety, efficacy, and ethical implications, particularly concerning long-term effects and vulnerable patient populations (Cohen et al., 2020). Conclusion In conclusion, the debate surrounding the right to experimental drugs necessitates careful consideration of ethical principles and moral frameworks. While these drugs hold promise, their use entails significant risks and ethical dilemmas. Striking a balance between access and safety is crucial, with regulatory oversight ensuring adherence to ethical standards. Ultimately, decisions must prioritize patient welfare, guided by thorough risk-benefit assessments and ethical considerations. References Amrutkar, S. S., Patil, S. B., & Mundada, A. S. (2022). Abbreviated new drug submission approval process: An overview. Journal of Generic Medicines: The Business Journal for the Generic Medicines Sector, 174113432211460. https://doi.org/10.1177/17411343221146094 Bendicksen, L., Kesselheim, A. S., & Rome, B. N. (2022). The vexing voyage of vasopressin. Chest, 162(2), 433–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2022.02.048 Borysowski, J., & Górski, A. (2019). Compassionate use of unauthorized drugs: Legal regulations and ethical challenges. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 65, 12–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2019.04.008 Bunnik, E. M., & Aarts, N. (2019). What do patients with unmet medical needs want? A qualitative study of patients’ views and experiences with expanded access to unapproved, investigational treatments in the Netherlands. BMC Medical Ethics, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-019-0420-8 Cohen, P. A., Avula, B., Wang, Y. H., Zakharevich, I., & Khan, I. (2020). Five unapproved drugs found in cognitive enhancement supplements. Neurology: Clinical Practice. https://doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000960 Dankar, F. K., Gergely, M., & Dankar, S. K. (2019). Informed consent in biomedical research. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 17, 463–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2019.03.010 FDA. (2019). Drugs. Fda.gov. https://www.fda.gov/drugs Feustel, A. C., MacPherson, A., Fergusson, D. A., Kieburtz, K., & Kimmelman, J. (2019). Risks and benefits of unapproved disease-modifying treatments for neurodegenerative disease. Neurology, 94(1), e1–e14. https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.0000000000008699 Heydari, M., Mehraeen, M., & Joulaei, H. (2020). Overmedication and waste of resources in physicians’ prescriptions: A cross-sectional study in southwestern Iran. Shiraz E-Medical Journal, 21(9). https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.97662 Madeddu, C., Neri, M., Sanna, E., Oppi, S., & Macciò, A. (2021). Experimental drugs for chemotherapy- and cancer-related anemia. Journal of Experimental Pharmacology, Volume 13, 593–611. https://doi.org/10.2147/jep.s262349 PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 2 A Right to Experimental Drugs? Nandifa, V. N. P., Jena, Y., & Joewana, S. (2020). Beneficence is the highest moral imperative of a doctor dealing with the poor quality of patient autonomy. Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia: The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education, 9(1), 44. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpki.44511 O’Mathúna, D. P., Escartín, C. P., Roche, P., & Marlowe, J. (2020). Engaging citizen translators in disasters. Translation and Interpreting Studies. https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.20003.oma Quaranta, A., D’Isidoro, O., Piattelli, A., Hui, W. L., & Perrotti, V. (2022). Illegal drugs and periodontal conditions. Periodontology 2000, 90(1), 62–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/prd.12450 Tseng, P.-E., & Wang, Y.-H. (2021). Deontological or utilitarian? An eternal ethical dilemma in outbreak. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(16), 8565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168565 Varkey, B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509119 Vearrier, L., & Henderson, C. M. (2021). Utilitarian principlism as a framework for crisis

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (41) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories Name Capella University PHI FPX 3200 Ethics in Health Care Prof. Name Date Matrix of Ethical Theories Theory Decision Criteria Your Own Example Strengths Weaknesses Utilitarianism The ethical model that prioritizes maximizing overall happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people is utilitarianism. In healthcare, this approach may prioritize interventions or policies that provide the greatest overall benefit to society, even if some individuals may experience harm or discomfort (Henderson, 2021). A healthcare organization prioritizes the distribution of vaccines to vulnerable populations, such as elderly individuals or healthcare workers. This will maximize the overall benefit to society, as prioritizing vulnerable populations has the potential to prevent the spread of disease and reduce overall morbidity and mortality rates. Utilitarianism promotes prioritizing the well-being of others, which fosters a sense of community and social responsibility. By focusing on the greatest overall benefit to society, utilitarianism encourages cooperation and collaboration among individuals and groups, leading to positive social outcomes (Dale, 2020). One weakness of utilitarianism is that it can prioritize the needs of the majority over the rights and interests of minorities or marginalized groups. This can lead to unjust or unfair outcomes, especially if the rights of certain individuals or groups are consistently overlooked in the pursuit of overall happiness or utility (Dale, 2020). Kantian Ethics Kantian ethics emphasizes the importance of moral principles based on rationality and reason rather than emotions or external circumstances. It highlights the concept of the categorical imperative, which emphasizes the importance of treating all individuals with respect and dignity (Canning, 2019). A doctor refuses to share confidential patient information with others, even if it may be in the patient’s best interest, as it goes against the moral principle of respecting the autonomy and privacy of the patient. Kantian ethics places a strong emphasis on individual autonomy and treating all individuals with respect and dignity. One of the strengths of Kantian ethics is that it highlights the significance of treating all people with respect and dignity, irrespective of their personal preferences or desires. It recognizes the inherent worth and value of every human being and promotes moral behavior based on universal moral principles (Smith, 2022). Kantian ethics can be rigid and lead to moral absolutism, as various actions are deemed inherently right or wrong regardless of context or consequences. Other weaknesses include a lack of focus on the greater good and impracticality in real-world situations (Smith, 2022). Ross’s Ethics In healthcare, Ross’s Ethics is a deontological ethical theory that proposes that ethical decision-making involves balancing competing moral obligations. It emphasizes that moral duties are not absolute but rather prima facie duties that can be overridden by other moral considerations. The theory recognizes the complexity of moral decision-making and the importance of considering each ethical dilemma’s particular circumstances (Paris, 2019). A nurse is caring for a terminally ill patient who is experiencing excruciating pain. The patient requests a medication dosage that is higher than the recommended amount to alleviate their pain. The nurse faces a dilemma between respecting the patient’s autonomy and duty to not cause harm. Ross’s ethics help healthcare staff to resolve conflicts and follow ethical framework before making a decision. Ross’s ethics provides a framework for balancing conflicting moral obligations and considers the context and particular circumstances of each ethical dilemma. It also recognizes the complexity of ethical decision-making and allows for flexibility in determining moral duties (Kolawole, 2022). One of the weaknesses is that the prima facie duties can sometimes conflict with each other, leading to difficulties in decision-making. Additionally, the theory provides little guidance on how to resolve conflicts between prima facie duties. This can lead to inconsistencies in decision-making and difficulty in finding a resolution (Kolawole, 2022). Natural Law Ethics In healthcare, Natural Law Ethics can be applied to guide ethical decision-making by identifying and prioritizing moral duties based on natural laws. This ethical theory suggests that healthcare providers have a duty to promote the natural goal of human life, which is to achieve optimal health and well-being (Varkey, 2021). A physician refuses to follow the preferences of a terminally ill patient who is in excruciating pain and requests assisted suicide. Instead, the doctor will provide palliative care to alleviate the pain and improve his quality of life. This decision is based on the belief that assisted suicide goes against the natural law of preserving human life. Natural Law Ethics in healthcare focuses on moral values that are universal and based on nature. It provides a clear framework for ethical decision-making and can help individuals to distinguish between right and wrong actions. Natural Law Ethics also prioritizes the well-being and health of patients, which is an important aspect of healthcare (Haker, 2020). Natural Law Ethics is overly simplistic and inflexible in complex ethical situations and its assumption that there is a clear and objective purpose or end goal of human life. It often leads to disregard for individual’s sentiments because of its rigid nature and sometimes unfair decisions are made and biasness is involved (Haker, 2020). PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories References: Canning, U. P. (2019). Public health ethics: A flawed view of Kant’s argument from autonomy. Journal of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdz164 Dale, S. (2020). Utilitarianism in crisis. Voices in Bioethics, 6. https://journals.library.columbia.edu/index.php/bioethics/article/view/6082 Haker, H. (2020). Towards a critical political ethics: Catholic ethics and social challenges. In Google Books. Schwabe Verlag (Basel). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=TxmvEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=natural+law+ethics+in+healthcare&ots=9HDTuQX9YJ&sig=g4YAwHRNmqaaAOrk7AlunCB5Au8 Kolawole, A. S., & David, E. O. (2022). Patient-physician relationship: In defence of w. d. ross’s prima facie duties. Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics, 13(3), 35–43. http://bjbio.bioethics.org.bd/index.php/BJBio/article/view/48 Paris, J. J., & Cummings, B. M. (2019). Elisabeth Kübler-Ross: A pioneer thinker, influential teacher and contributor to clinical ethics. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(12),

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