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PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 4 Research Report

Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (102) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 4 Research Report Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4600 Research Methods in Psychology Prof. Name Date Literature Review Abstract Goal setting is an inherent human behavior, present across all ages. Both adult and child students often set academic goals and are willing to undertake additional tasks to achieve them. This review examines the relationship between extra credit assignments and students’ final grades. The null hypothesis posits that students who complete extra credit projects will have higher final percentages than those who do not. Conversely, the alternative hypothesis suggests that students who complete extra credit projects will not have higher final percentages than those who do not. This study aims to determine if extra credit assignments positively impact final grades by analyzing existing research and theories. Locke and Latham’s Goal Setting Theory Goal Setting Theory, introduced by Locke and Latham (1991), emphasizes that the specificity and difficulty level of a goal are crucial to its success. This theory is pertinent to this research as it highlights the motivation that drives actions. In this context, students set goals to achieve a specific final grade and undertake extra credit projects to enhance their chances of success. Myers and Hatchel (2019) found that students generally have positive attitudes towards extra credit opportunities, even if they do not participate. A study by Prior (2018) published in Educational Action Research showed that extra credit activities, like pop quizzes, help students become more familiar with the material, thus increasing test scores and final grades. This concept is predictive of students’ behavior as it illustrates their goal-setting processes and their willingness to pursue these goals. Values and Limitations Research indicates that there is no clear and direct correlation between final grades and extra credit activities. However, extra credit is seen as beneficial by educators as it enhances participation, classroom engagement, and students’ perception of the course. According to Izienicki and Setchfield (2019), instructors at large institutions are more likely to offer extra credit as it helps manage students’ perceptions of the course and the instructor. Despite this, many students express positive attitudes towards extra credit but seldom participate in it. Foster (2021) reported that while over 80% of students expressed willingness to do extra credit at the beginning of the class, only 24% actually completed any extra credit work when offered, even if it could have provided the points needed to pass. Additionally, high-achieving students might engage in extra credit more frequently to meet perceived higher expectations (Endleman et al., 2022). Conversely, low-performing students often avoid extra credit assignments to prevent additional stress (Stark et al., 2020). Research Proposal Educators and researchers generally believe that extra credit can aid in improving final grades for students. The initial hypothesis for this study posited that students participating in extra credit projects would have final grades of C (average) or higher. However, numerical analysis must be used to validate this hypothesis. The independent variable is extra credit participation, while the dependent variable is the final percentage. Methods Sampling Purposive Sampling was employed, as the sample was predetermined. The sample was drawn from a total population of 105 students, focusing on the 22 students who completed the extra credit project. Measures Regression Analysis was utilized to measure whether the final grades of students who participated in extra credit projects were C or higher. This analysis examines the relationship between the independent variable (extra credit) and the dependent variable (final grade). Procedure A Linear Regression model was used to determine if the final percentages of students who completed extra credit projects were 70% (C) or higher. This method shows the relationship between independent and dependent variables (Montgomery et al., 2021). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported their extra credit completion and final grades. The output’s model summary indicated an adjusted R² of .066, meaning the regression explained 6.6% of the variance in the data. The F-test indicated a significant linear relationship between the variables. The lowest final percentage for students who completed extra credit was 74% (C), whereas the lowest for those who did not was 43% (F). The highest percentage for both groups was 98% (A). Conclusion The results support the null hypothesis, indicating that students who participated in extra credit assignments achieved final percentages of 74% (C) or higher. This aligns with the Goal Setting Theory, as students undertook extra credit to reach their highest possible grades. Despite the study’s limitations, such as variance in student demographics and external factors, the findings suggest that extra credit can positively impact final grades. Educators might consider offering extra credit more frequently to support student achievement. References Endleman, S., Brittain, H., & Vaillancourt, T. (2022). The longitudinal associations between perfectionism and academic achievement across adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 46(2), 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/01650254211037400 PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 4 Research Report Foster, K. T. (2021). Engagement in an online library class: Using extra credit activities to encourage student interaction. Reference Services Review, 49(2), 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1108/RSR-11-2020-0067 Izienicki, H., & Setchfield, S. (2019). Extra credit in the sociology classroom. Teaching Sociology, 47(1), 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092055X18801908 Locke, E., & Latham, G. (1991). A theory of goal setting & task performance. The Academy of Management Review, 16, 10.2307/258875. Montgomery, D. C., Peck, E. A., & Vining, G. G. (2021). Introduction to linear regression analysis. John Wiley & Sons. Myers, C. A., & Hatchel, J. (2019). Personality and cognitive factors related to completing extra credit assignments. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2019.130207 Prior, J. (2018). Integrating extra credit exercises into a university English-language course: How action research provided a framework to identify a practical problem. Educational Action Research, 26(5), 770-786. https://doi.org/10.1080/09650792.2017.1402687 Schäfer, T., & Schwarz, M. A. (2019). The meaningfulness of effect sizes in psychological research: Differences between sub-disciplines and the impact of

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (104) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4600 Research Methods in Psychology Prof. Name Date Data Analysis and Interpretation In this section, statistical methods are employed to examine the data. This research utilizes the ANOVA single-factor test to analyze and interpret data for hypothesis testing. The analysis follows the statistical APA style, which is widely accepted for reporting research findings (Kyonka et al., 2019). Interpretation of Statistical Findings The statistical findings from the ANOVA results indicate that ethnicity among communities or students does not significantly impact grades and educational performance (Hoijtink et al., 2019). Neither students nor professors perceive differences among students based on cultural background, gender, color, or race. This study encourages future researchers to investigate other discriminatory factors and their effects on students’ academic records. The table below presents the statistical findings related to independent and dependent variables. ANOVA Results Source of Variation SS df MS F P-Value F-crit Between Groups 132.2473 16 8.265458 7.250311 3.15E-15 1.664263 Within Groups 556.3269 488 1.140014       Total 688.5743 504       PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation The one-way ANOVA results indicate that the impact of ethnicity on students’ grades is minimal, with p = 3.15. The statistical significance found is 688.5, which refutes the hypothesis. The ANOVA single-factor test calculates the mean values of the data and variance, showing the similarity between dependent and independent variables. The p-values obtained are greater than 0.05, indicating the dominance of the null hypothesis. The p-value of 3.15, being significantly higher than 0.05, suggests that ethnicity does not significantly impact grades and academic performance. Most respondents consider ethnicity a secondary factor affecting students’ grades and educational performance. Moreover, the high degrees of freedom (df) in the Single ANOVA test further refutes the hypothesis. The results suggest that personal abilities, family values, and financial status may significantly influence students’ grades and academic performance, highlighting progress in the educational sector in overcoming racial discrimination. Demographic Statistics For statistical analysis, it is essential to consider demographic factors such as race, age, and gender (Petritis & PhD, 2018). Demographic results can vary due to socioeconomic factors such as education and social status (Mishra et al., 2019). In this study, demographic questions are included in the ANOVA single-factor analysis to ascertain respondents’ qualifications, gender, work experience, and age. Respondents aged 15-55 are included, using a 10-year scale. Thirty responses are collected to provide real-time data for hypothesis testing. Data collection is conducted via Google Forms, with responses recorded in Excel. The results confirm that ethnicity among communities or students does not significantly impact grades and educational performance (Hoijtink et al., 2019). References Hoijtink, H., Mulder, J., van Lissa, C., & Gu, X. (2019). A tutorial on testing hypotheses using the Bayes factor. Psychological Methods, 24(5), 539–556. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000201 Kyonka, E. G. E., Mitchell, S. H., & Bizo, L. A. (2019). Beyond inference by eye: Statistical and graphing practices in JEAB, 1992-2017. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 111(2), 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.509 Mishra, P., Singh, U., Pandey, C., Mishra, P., & Pandey, G. (2019). Application of student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and covariance. Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia, 22(4), 407. https://doi.org/10.4103/aca.aca_94_19 PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation Petritis, B., & PhD. (2018, November 20). t-test & ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). RayBiotech.com. https://www.raybiotech.com/learning-center/t-test-anova/ PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation Also Read PSYC FPX 4700 Assessment 2 Central Tendency and Probability Read More PSYC FPX 4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics Frequency Distributions Percentiles and Graphical Representations Read More PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 4 Research Report Read More PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 3 Data Analysis and Interpretation Read More Load More

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 2 Research Proposal

Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (100) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 2 Research Proposal Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4600 Research Methods in Psychology Prof. Name Date Research Proposal Redding (2019) discussed the profound influence of ethnicity on students’ academic outcomes. The study suggested that students achieve higher academic performance when taught by teachers sharing the same racial or ethnic background, as this enhances their sense of comfort and competence (Redding, 2019). Based on this foundation, the hypothesis of the present study is: “Ethnicity significantly influences students’ academic performance and grades.” Here, ethnicity is the independent variable, while grades are the dependent variable. Sampling The study will utilize a random sampling technique to ensure an unbiased evaluation of the research hypothesis, with participants selected from high schools (Xu, 2019). Measures A mixed-methods research approach will be employed to examine the impact of ethnicity on students’ academic performance (Creamer & Reeping, 2020). Inferential statistics will be applied to test the hypothesis and to analyze the relationship between students’ grades and ethnic differences. While inferential statistics allow for generalizing findings from the sample to a larger population, they may face limitations due to incomplete measurement, potentially affecting data reliability and validity (Altoè et al., 2020). PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 2 Research Proposal Procedure Data will be collected using a mixed-method approach and survey design, which includes survey questions aimed at capturing participants’ opinions, thoughts, and ideas (Pack, 2023). Participants, who will be volunteers, will complete a demographic questionnaire providing information on age, sex, social status, race, and cultural background. All participants will be part of a single group, with ethnicity as the independent variable and grades as the dependent variable. Potential Confounding Variables Several potential confounding variables could influence the study, including academic performance and experiences of racism, as well as sociocultural factors such as social status and cultural differences. These variables will be controlled through strict adherence to research ethics to avoid any harm to the participants. References Altoè, G., Bertoldo, G., Zandonella Callegher, C., Toffalini, E., Calcagnì, A., Finos, L., & Pastore, M. (2020). Enhancing statistical inference in psychological research via prospective and retrospective design analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02893 Creamer, E. G., & Reeping, D. (2020). Advancing mixed methods in psychological research. Methods in Psychology, 3, 100035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metip.2020.100035 Pack. (2023). Methods In Psychology Author Information Pack Editor-in-Chief. Elsevier.com. https://www.elsevier.com/journals/methods-in-psychology/2590-2601?generatepdf=true Redding, C. (2019). A teacher like me: A review of the effect of student–teacher racial/ethnic matching on teacher perceptions of students and student academic and behavioral outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 89(4), 499–535. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654319853545 PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 2 Research Proposal Xu, A. (2019). Evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of pathogenic bacteria on pre-harvest leafy greens. Food Microbiology, 77, 137–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2018.09.007 PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 2 Research Proposal Also Read PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 2 Research Proposal Read More PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review Read More PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 4 Study Applications Read More PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 3 Literature Review Read More Load More

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review

PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (99) Depression (11) Essay (2) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review Name Capella University PSYC FPX 4600 Research Methods in Psychology Prof. Name Date Literature Review Psychology encompasses a wide array of research methods, each tailored to the specific subject and nature of the study (Cherry, 2019). This assessment will focus on various psychological research methods and concepts used to predict human behavior, providing a comprehensive literature review of the research hypothesis. Psychological Concepts Psychological research methods vary, with some widely used approaches being naturalistic observation, surveys, experimental methods, and case studies. Naturalistic observation involves observing research subjects in their natural environments, such as workplaces or classrooms (Scribbr, 2022). According to our research hypothesis, the naturalistic approach is suitable for studying grades. Surveys are used to gather data from a large sample of participants randomly selected. Experimental methods combine surveys and naturalistic observation, with researchers defining a hypothesis to test and identifying dependent and independent variables to generate research results. This widely used approach is grounded in hypothesis development (Verywellmind, 2019). Case studies, on the other hand, focus on specific individuals or groups over a defined period. In psychological research, several key concepts are essential to consider, including biological, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, and psychodynamic concepts (Gigerenzer, 2019). Psychological concepts refer to the written or verbal understanding of abstract intangible thoughts and ideas. These concepts assist researchers in understanding human behavior and the factors influencing the mind. Biological concepts focus on human behavior, genetics, and hormonal influences on genetic traits. Analyzing biological concepts helps trace every action and emotion back to its roots. Behavioral Concepts Behavioral concepts aid in understanding how individuals learn various behaviors from their environment, including conditioning or reinforcement of desired or undesired behavior (Gigerenzer, 2019). Cognitive concepts play a significant role in human decision-making. Psychodynamic concepts consider how individual internal drives influence behavior (Caputo & Tomai, 2020). For instance, positive or negative childhood experiences can shape an individual’s behavior. Humanistic concepts involve analyzing an individual’s entire personality rather than specific aspects. In this research, psychological concepts will help prove the hypothesis, which states, “Ethnicity has a significant impact on creating a difference in students’ grades and achievements.” To explore this, psychodynamic and biological concepts can be studied to evaluate the impact of ethnic differences on students’ academic performance. Predict Human Behavior In psychology, understanding human behavior often involves observing and applying psychological concepts. To predict human behavior, the use of biological and psychodynamic concepts is necessary for accurate and appropriate results (Parlia, 2020). To focus on ethnic differences, one must consider the childhood experiences of students living in a multicultural society (Parlia, 2020). Analyzing the educational outcomes by comparing and contrasting students’ grades from different ethnic backgrounds can reveal deviations. Value and Limitations of a Theory Biological explanations can oversimplify behavior by neglecting the influence of childhood experiences. This reductionist approach does not consider the cultural environment’s impact on human behavior (Harris & McDade, 2018). Biological evaluations should account for cultural and environmental factors influencing behavioral changes. Psychodynamic concepts focus on psychological factors while neglecting the genetic and biological factors influencing behavior (Cherry, 2019). Both these concepts are crucial to consider in researching the hypothesis, as ethnicity and students’ academic performance are interconnected. Studying both biological and psychodynamic concepts can help explain the influence of cultural traits, genetics, and mental capabilities on students’ grades. Plausible Hypothesis The research hypothesis states, “Ethnicity has a significant impact on creating a difference in students’ grades and achievements.” Here, ethnicity is the independent variable, and students’ grades and achievements are the dependent variables. Literature Review Supporting Thesis Redding (2022) examined the impact of ethnicity on students’ grades, particularly focusing on Latino students. This research analyzed behavioral concepts, finding that assigning students with teachers of the same race led to higher grades. Psychodynamic concepts were evaluated, as students felt more comfortable and connected with teachers who shared similar mindsets and cultural ideas. This fostered strong relationships with teachers, enhancing academic performance. Biological concepts studied in this research included mindset and biological similarities among individuals of the same ethnicity. Leath et al. (2019) investigated the academic outcomes of ethnic students, considering factors like racial identity beliefs, racial discrimination, and other demographic traits. They found that racial differences negatively influenced academic engagement, resulting in lower performance. Racial beliefs and social identities in schools could hinder students’ academic growth due to the potential of facing racial discrimination and negativity. The research discussed behavioral aspects from psychodynamic concepts in psychology to evaluate the reasons behind the impact of ethnicity on students’ academic performance. References Caputo, A., & Tomai, M. (2020). A systematic review of psychodynamic theories in community psychology: Discovering the unconscious in community work. Journal of Community Psychology, 48(6), 2069–2085. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22407 Cherry, K. (2019, November 27). Perspectives in Modern Psychology. Verywellmind.com. https://www.verywellmind.com/perspectives-in-modern-psychology-2795595 Gigerenzer, G. (2019). How to explain behavior? Topics in Cognitive Science, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12480 PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review Harris, K. M., & McDade, T. W. (2018). The biosocial approach to human development, behavior, and health across the life course. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 4(4), 2–26. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2018.4.4.01 Leath, S., Mathews, C., Harrison, A., & Chavous, T. (2019). Racial identity, racial discrimination, and classroom engagement outcomes among black girls and boys in predominantly black and predominantly white school districts. American Educational Research Journal, 56(4), 1318–1352. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831218816955 Parlia. (2020, April 7). Psychology can predict human behaviors. Parlia.com. https://www.parlia.com/a/psychology-predict-human-behaviors Redding, C. (2019). A teacher like me: A review of the effect of student–teacher racial/ethnic matching on teacher perceptions of students and student academic and behavioral outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 89(4), 499–535. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654319853545 Redding, C. (2022). Is teacher–student and student–principal racial/ethnic matching related to elementary school grade retention? AERA Open, 8, 233285842110675. https://doi.org/10.1177/23328584211067534 PSYC FPX 4600 Assessment 1 Literature Review Verywellmind.

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