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PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 4 Applying the DSM Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 4 Applying the DSM Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (119) Depression (11) Essay (2) MS Psychology (154) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 4 Applying the DSM Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Name Capella University PSYC FPX 3110 Abnormal Psychology Prof. Name Date Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), a prevalent mental disorder, manifests through both obsessions and compulsions aimed at alleviating the distress caused by intrusive thoughts (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2017). Obsessions are persistent, intrusive thoughts that are often irrational and distressing, while compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed to neutralize the anxiety generated by these obsessions (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Statistics According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2017), OCD affects approximately 1.2% of adults in the U.S. and 1 in 100 children. It exhibits a higher prevalence in females and typically emerges during adolescence, with an average age of onset around 19.5 years. Most cases begin before the age of 35, and onset after this age is uncommon (NIMH, 2017). Famous People Diagnosed with OCD Several well-known individuals have openly discussed their struggles with OCD, including Howie Mandel, Megan Fox, Billy Bob Thornton, and Jennifer Love Hewitt. The History of OCD Historically, OCD was associated with religious melancholy in the 17th century, gradually transitioning to medical explanations by the 19th century. In the 20th century, psychological explanations gained prominence, leading to the classification of OCD as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV in 1994. Subsequent revisions in the DSM-V introduced significant changes to the classification of OCD and related disorders (Stanford Medicine, n.d.). Theories: What Causes OCD? Biological Perspective Biological factors contributing to OCD include genetic vulnerabilities, brain dysfunction or neural plasticity, and abnormalities in neurotransmitters or hormones (Atmaca et al., 2007; Browne et al., 2014). Psychological Perspective Psychological theories propose that OCD may result from learned behaviors, particularly avoidance learning, and dysfunctional beliefs or appraisals, as outlined in the cognitive-behavioral model (Barrera & Norton, 2011; Abramowitz et al., 2018). Changes in Diagnosis In the DSM-IV, OCD was categorized under anxiety disorders, requiring patients to recognize the irrationality of their obsessions or compulsions. However, the DSM-V reclassified OCD under obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, emphasizing the presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both, without the necessity of insight into their irrationality (APA, 2013). Advances in Treatment of OCD Effective treatments for OCD include Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP), Telehealth CBT, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) (Hezel & Simpson, 2019; Hooley et al., 2019). What Led to Changes in the DSM? Revisions in the DSM aimed to align diagnoses based on shared symptoms, comorbidity, onset, progression, risk factors, and treatment response, reflecting a more nuanced understanding of psychiatric disorders (Leckman et al., 2010; Stein et al., 2010). Support for Change in Treatment ERP, a cornerstone of OCD treatment, has shown significant efficacy, with two-thirds of patients experiencing improvement and one-third achieving complete recovery. Patients often prefer ERP over medication, as it improves quality of life and eliminates the need for long-term pharmacotherapy (Hezel & Simpson, 2019). PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 4 Applying the DSM Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Conclusion The reclassification of OCD in the DSM has facilitated more accurate diagnosis and treatment, contributing to its status as a highly treatable disorder. Looking ahead, ongoing research and advancements in treatment modalities offer hope for further improvements in the management of OCD. References Abramowitz, J. S., Blakey, S. M., Reuman, L., & Buchholz, J. L. (2018). New directions in the cognitive-behavioral treatment of OCD: Theory, research, and practice. Behavior Therapy, 49(3), 311-322. Atmaca, M., Yildirim, H., Ozdemir, H., Tezcan, E., & Poyraz, A. K. (2007). Volumetric MRI study of key brain regions implicated in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 31(1), 46-52. Barrera, T. L., & Norton, P. J. (2011). The appraisal of intrusive thoughts in relation to obsessional-compulsive symptoms. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40(2), 98-110. doi:10.1080/16506073.2010.545072 Browne, H. A., Gair, S. L., Scharf, J. M., & Grice, D. E. (2014). Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 37(3), 319–335. Hezel, D. M., & Simpson, H. B. (2019). Exposure and response prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review and new directions. Indian journal of psychiatry, 61(Suppl 1), S85–S92. Lack, C. W. (2012). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence-based treatments and future directions for research. World journal of psychiatry, 2(6), 86–90. PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 4 Applying the DSM Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Stein, D. J., Fineberg, N. A., Bienvenu, O. J., Denys, D., Lochner, C., Nestadt, G., Leckman, J. F., Rauch, S. L., & Phillips, K. A. (2010). Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V? Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 27(6), 495–506. Also Read PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 4 Applying the DSM Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Read More PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM Read More PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Read More PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Read More Load More

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (119) Depression (11) Essay (2) MS Psychology (153) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM Name Capella University PSYC FPX 3110 Abnormal Psychology Prof. Name Date Living Criteria of Bipolar Disorder in the DSM-5 Bipolar disorder, a multifaceted mood disorder marked by alternating episodes of mania and depression, is categorized within the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). McIntyre and Calabrese (2019) delineate bipolar disorder as encompassing a spectrum of mood fluctuations, comprising manic, depressive, and hypomanic episodes. It is classified into two main types: bipolar I disorder, distinguished by severe manic episodes often accompanied by psychotic features, and bipolar II disorder, characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and recurrent depressive episodes (APA, 2013). Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder The diagnosis of bipolar disorder hinges on distinguishing manic or hypomanic episodes from other mood disorders, such as Major Depressive Disorder (APA, 2013). Manic episodes typically endure for weeks to months, while hypomanic episodes are briefer, lasting only a few days to weeks and are indicative of bipolar II disorder. Although depression is a hallmark of bipolar II disorder, it is also present in bipolar I disorder (McCormick et al., 2015). Differential diagnosis often involves the utilization of screening tools followed by clinical interviews to evaluate symptomatology, functional impairment, and family history (McCormick et al., 2015). Effects of Bipolar Disorder on Mariah Carey’s Career Mariah Carey, a celebrated vocalist, disclosed her battle with bipolar II disorder in 2001, citing apprehension of stigma as a hindrance to seeking assistance (Cagle, 2018). Despite her talent and triumphs, bipolar disorder impacted Carey’s career through symptoms like sleep disturbances, irritability, and despondency, leading to challenges in completing tasks and strained interpersonal relationships (Cagle, 2018). Treatment of Bipolar Disorder Treatment modalities for bipolar disorder encompass pharmacotherapy, psychosocial interventions, and support from familial and social networks. Pharmacotherapy entails mood stabilizers such as Sodium valproate and lamotrigine to manage symptoms and avert relapse (Vieta et al., 2018). Psychosocial interventions, comprising psychotherapy and group therapy, furnish education and support to patients, aiding in medication adherence and symptom management (Vieta et al., 2018). Family and social support play a pivotal role in fostering stability and recovery for individuals with bipolar disorder. Professional Considerations in Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment Comprehending the intricacies of bipolar disorder and its differential diagnosis is crucial for mental health professionals. Misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment and exacerbation of symptoms (Hooley, Butcher, & Nock, 2019). Integration of diverse therapeutic modalities, including cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions, tailored to individual needs is imperative for favorable outcomes (Hooley, Butcher, & Nock, 2019). PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM Conclusion Bipolar disorder presents notable challenges for individuals like Mariah Carey, underscoring the significance of early detection and comprehensive treatment approaches. By addressing stigma, delivering effective interventions, and fostering support systems, individuals with bipolar disorder can lead gratifying lives. Grasping the subtleties of bipolar disorder is essential for mental health professionals to provide optimal care and support. References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC. Cagle, J. (2018). Mariah Carey: My Battle with Bipolar Disorder. People.com. Retrieved from https://people.com/music/mariah-carey-bipolar-disorder-diagnosis-exclusive/ Hooley, J. M., Butcher, J. N., & Nock, M. K. (2019). Abnormal psychology (18th ed.). Pearson. McCormick, U., Murray, B., & McNew, B. (2015). Diagnosis and treatment of patients with bipolar disorder: A review for advanced practice nurses. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 27(9), 530-542. McIntyre, R. S., & Calabrese, J. R. (2019). Bipolar Depression: The clinical characteristics and unmet needs of a complex disorder. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 35(11), 1993-2005. Retrieved from https://tandonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03007995.2019.1636017 PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM Vieta, E., et al. (2018). Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(5), 411-426. Also Read PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 3 Living Criteria of the DSM Read More PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Read More PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Read More PSY FPX 8845 Assessment 4 Informational Interview Read More Load More

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (119) Depression (11) Essay (2) MS Psychology (152) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Name Capella University PSYC FPX 3110 Abnormal Psychology Prof. Name Date Case Study Analysis: Major Depressive Disorder in Jenny Jenny, a 35-year-old single woman, exhibited symptoms consistent with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) according to the DSM-5 criteria. Per the DSM-5, a diagnosis of MDD requires the presence of at least five out of nine specific symptoms over a continuous two-week period (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Jenny’s symptoms, which included insomnia, fatigue, loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities, significant weight loss, and difficulty concentrating, aligned with the diagnostic criteria for MDD (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Furthermore, there were no physiological or medical explanations for her symptoms, thus supporting the diagnosis of MDD. Case Study Analysis: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Fred Fred, a single man, experienced daily panic attacks following a traumatic event where he was robbed at gunpoint. His symptoms, including intrusive memories, avoidance of triggering stimuli, detachment from others, hypervigilance, and reckless behavior, corresponded to the criteria outlined in the DSM-5 for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Fred’s avoidance of public transportation and reckless biking behavior demonstrated marked alterations in arousal and reactivity, characteristic of PTSD (Neil Greenberg et al., 2015). The absence of physiological or substance-related explanations for his symptoms supported the diagnosis of PTSD. Case Study Analysis: Bipolar I Disorder in Sally Sally, a 23-year-old woman, displayed symptoms consistent with Bipolar I Disorder, characterized by distinct manic episodes. Her inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, and engagement in high-risk activities aligned with the criteria for a manic episode as outlined in the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Sally’s symptoms, such as excessive writing, impulsive vehicle purchase, and delusions of grandeur regarding her novel, indicated significant impairment in social and occupational functioning, supporting the diagnosis of Bipolar I Disorder. No physiological or substance-related factors contributed to her symptoms, reinforcing the diagnosis. Treatment Recommendations for Fred: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy For Fred’s PTSD, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) are recommended treatments. CBT aims to address trauma-related thoughts and behaviors over a 12-week course, assisting individuals in developing coping strategies and reframing traumatic experiences (Fortin et al., 2021). IPT focuses on enhancing interpersonal relationships and addressing current stressors (Bleiberg & Markowitz, 2019). Both CBT and IPT have demonstrated efficacy in treating PTSD symptoms and improving overall functioning (Mayranezouli et al., 2020). By addressing Fred’s avoidance behaviors and interpersonal difficulties, these therapies can alleviate his symptoms and enhance his quality of life. PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Conclusion In conclusion, these case studies underscore the importance of accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment approaches in managing mental health disorders. By utilizing the DSM-5 criteria and evidence-based interventions such as CBT and IPT, clinicians can effectively support individuals like Jenny, Fred, and Sally in managing their symptoms and improving their well-being. References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm03 Bleiberg, K. L., & Markowitz, J. C. (2019). Interpersonal psychotherapy for PTSD: Treating trauma without exposure. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 29(1), 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1037/int0000113 Fortin, M., Fortin, C., Savard-Kelly, P., Guay, S., & El-Baalbaki, G. (2021). The effects of psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder on quality of life in the civilian population: A meta-analysis of RCTs. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 13(6), 673–683. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000992 Mayranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Daly, C., Dias, S., Welton, N. J., Stockton, S., Bhutani, G., Grey, N., Leach, J., Greenberg, N., Katona, C., El-Leithy, S., & Pilling, S. (2020). Psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: A network meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 50(4), 542–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720000070 PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Neil Greenberg, Samantha Brooks, Rebecca Dunn. (2015). Latest developments in post-traumatic stress disorder: diagnosis and treatment. British Medical Bulletin, Volume 114(1), 147-155. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldv014 Also Read PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM Read More PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Read More PSY FPX 8845 Assessment 4 Informational Interview Read More PSY FPX 8845 Assessment 3 Ethics in Sport Psychology Read More Load More

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Free Sample Papers Anxiety (1) BS Psychology (119) Depression (11) Essay (2) MS Psychology (151) Need writer for your Psychology Papers? Get your paper in 24 Hours. We have a team of Psychology Academic Writers who can help you quickly write plagiarism-free papers, essays, and research articles. Hire Writer PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Name Capella University PSYC FPX 3110 Abnormal Psychology Prof. Name Date Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective in Psychology The cognitive-behavioral perspective in psychology focuses on the examination of mental processes that influence behavior. It investigates the brain’s activity underlying specific behaviors. Dr. Saul McLeod (1970) emphasized that understanding the mental processes occurring in individuals’ minds is crucial for comprehending human behavior. This paper aims to explore the mental processes potentially contributing to abnormal aggressive behavior. The Evolution of Cognitive-Behavioral Theory The cognitive-behavioral theory rose to prominence in the 1960s with the advent of the cognitive therapy movement. The origins of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are diverse due to varying approaches and debates about appropriate techniques (Nurius & Macy, 2008). Since its inception, CBT has been significantly refined, becoming a cornerstone in therapeutic practices (Nurius & Macy, 2008). Grounded in the cognitive-behavioral perspective, this theory posits that brain functions have a substantial impact on individual behavior, effectively bridging cognitive psychology with behavioral outcomes. Researchers have made considerable progress in understanding how brain functions influence behavior. Albert Bandura, a key figure in the cognitive-behavioral perspective, highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning (Hooley et al., 2021). Bandura proposed that individuals learn through internal reinforcements and can foresee the consequences of their actions (Hooley et al., 2021). He also stressed the importance of enhancing self-efficacy as a central mechanism in cognitive-behavioral therapies (Hooley et al., 2021). Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Anxiety Anxiety, characterized by excessive worry and apprehension, is a prevalent public health concern (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016). Despite its widespread impact, many individuals with anxiety do not receive treatment (Zhang et al., 2019). Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the most researched and effective psychosocial intervention for anxiety disorders (Zhang et al., 2019). Rooted in the belief that negative thinking patterns contribute to anxiety, CBT aims to identify and correct maladaptive cognitive patterns (Kaczkurkin & Foa, 2015). By altering cognitive patterns, CBT facilitates a shift from negative emotions to positive responses. Sociocultural View of Anxiety An individual’s upbringing and societal context significantly influence their experience of anxiety. Research indicates that anxiety is a universal phenomenon, though its expression varies across cultures (Eshun et al., 2009). Societal norms and cultural values shape individuals’ interpretations of experiences and their subsequent emotional responses (Hofmann et al., 2010). Understanding ethnopsychological factors is essential in linking anxiety disorders to their societal roots. Integrating Multiple Theories to Understand Abnormal Behavior Abnormal behavior often defies simplistic explanations, necessitating a multidimensional approach. In addition to the cognitive-behavioral theory, various theoretical frameworks such as psychoanalysis, humanistic theory, and biological perspectives offer unique insights into abnormal behavior. Integrating diverse theories facilitates a comprehensive understanding, although overly complex approaches may hinder effective treatment. Conclusion Cognitive processes intricately shape human behavior, offering avenues for intervention in addressing abnormal behavior. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, grounded in understanding the interplay between cognition and behavior, serves as a potent tool in treating various mental health disorders, particularly anxiety. By challenging maladaptive cognitive patterns, individuals can cultivate resilience and develop positive responses to life’s challenges. PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis References Carpenter, J. K., Andrews, L. A., Witcraft, S. M., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A. J., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Depression and Anxiety, 35(6), 502–514. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22728 Cuijpers, P., Berking, M., Andersson, G., Quigley, L., Kleiboer, A., & Dobson, K. S. (2013). A meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioural therapy for adult depression, alone and in comparison with other treatments. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(7), 376-385. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371305800702 Eshun, S., Gurung, R. A. R., & Gurung, B. V. (Eds.). (2009). Culture and mental health: Sociocultural influences, theory, and practice. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, M. A., & Hinton, D. E. (2010). Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 27(12), 1117–1127. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20759 Kaczkurkin, A. N., & Foa, E. B. (2015, September). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: An update on the empirical evidence. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4610618/ Watts, S. E., Turnell, A., Kladnitski, N., Newby, J. M., & Andrews, G. (2015). Treatment-as-usual (TAU) is anything but usual: A meta-analysis of CBT versus TAU for anxiety and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 152–167. PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Zhang, A., Bornheimer, L. A., Weaver, A., Franklin, C., Hai, A. H., Guz, S., & Shen, L. (2019). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for primary care depression and anxiety: A secondary meta-analytic review using robust variance estimation in meta-regression. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 42(6), 1117–1141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00046-z Also Read PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective – An Analysis Read More PSY FPX 8845 Assessment 4 Informational Interview Read More PSY FPX 8845 Assessment 3 Ethics in Sport Psychology Read More PSY FPX 8845 Assessment 2 Diversity Case Study Read More Load More

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