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PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories

Name

Capella University

PHI FPX 3200 Ethics in Health Care

Prof. Name

Date

Matrix of Ethical Theories

Theory
Decision Criteria
Your Own Example
Strengths
Weaknesses
UtilitarianismThe ethical model that prioritizes maximizing overall happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people is utilitarianism. In healthcare, this approach may prioritize interventions or policies that provide the greatest overall benefit to society, even if some individuals may experience harm or discomfort (Henderson, 2021).A healthcare organization prioritizes the distribution of vaccines to vulnerable populations, such as elderly individuals or healthcare workers. This will maximize the overall benefit to society, as prioritizing vulnerable populations has the potential to prevent the spread of disease and reduce overall morbidity and mortality rates.Utilitarianism promotes prioritizing the well-being of others, which fosters a sense of community and social responsibility. By focusing on the greatest overall benefit to society, utilitarianism encourages cooperation and collaboration among individuals and groups, leading to positive social outcomes (Dale, 2020).One weakness of utilitarianism is that it can prioritize the needs of the majority over the rights and interests of minorities or marginalized groups. This can lead to unjust or unfair outcomes, especially if the rights of certain individuals or groups are consistently overlooked in the pursuit of overall happiness or utility (Dale, 2020).
Kantian EthicsKantian ethics emphasizes the importance of moral principles based on rationality and reason rather than emotions or external circumstances. It highlights the concept of the categorical imperative, which emphasizes the importance of treating all individuals with respect and dignity (Canning, 2019).A doctor refuses to share confidential patient information with others, even if it may be in the patient’s best interest, as it goes against the moral principle of respecting the autonomy and privacy of the patient. Kantian ethics places a strong emphasis on individual autonomy and treating all individuals with respect and dignity.One of the strengths of Kantian ethics is that it highlights the significance of treating all people with respect and dignity, irrespective of their personal preferences or desires. It recognizes the inherent worth and value of every human being and promotes moral behavior based on universal moral principles (Smith, 2022).Kantian ethics can be rigid and lead to moral absolutism, as various actions are deemed inherently right or wrong regardless of context or consequences. Other weaknesses include a lack of focus on the greater good and impracticality in real-world situations (Smith, 2022).
Ross’s EthicsIn healthcare, Ross’s Ethics is a deontological ethical theory that proposes that ethical decision-making involves balancing competing moral obligations. It emphasizes that moral duties are not absolute but rather prima facie duties that can be overridden by other moral considerations. The theory recognizes the complexity of moral decision-making and the importance of considering each ethical dilemma’s particular circumstances (Paris, 2019).A nurse is caring for a terminally ill patient who is experiencing excruciating pain. The patient requests a medication dosage that is higher than the recommended amount to alleviate their pain. The nurse faces a dilemma between respecting the patient’s autonomy and duty to not cause harm. Ross’s ethics help healthcare staff to resolve conflicts and follow ethical framework before making a decision.Ross’s ethics provides a framework for balancing conflicting moral obligations and considers the context and particular circumstances of each ethical dilemma. It also recognizes the complexity of ethical decision-making and allows for flexibility in determining moral duties (Kolawole, 2022).One of the weaknesses is that the prima facie duties can sometimes conflict with each other, leading to difficulties in decision-making. Additionally, the theory provides little guidance on how to resolve conflicts between prima facie duties. This can lead to inconsistencies in decision-making and difficulty in finding a resolution (Kolawole, 2022).
Natural Law EthicsIn healthcare, Natural Law Ethics can be applied to guide ethical decision-making by identifying and prioritizing moral duties based on natural laws. This ethical theory suggests that healthcare providers have a duty to promote the natural goal of human life, which is to achieve optimal health and well-being (Varkey, 2021).A physician refuses to follow the preferences of a terminally ill patient who is in excruciating pain and requests assisted suicide. Instead, the doctor will provide palliative care to alleviate the pain and improve his quality of life. This decision is based on the belief that assisted suicide goes against the natural law of preserving human life.Natural Law Ethics in healthcare focuses on moral values that are universal and based on nature. It provides a clear framework for ethical decision-making and can help individuals to distinguish between right and wrong actions. Natural Law Ethics also prioritizes the well-being and health of patients, which is an important aspect of healthcare (Haker, 2020).Natural Law Ethics is overly simplistic and inflexible in complex ethical situations and its assumption that there is a clear and objective purpose or end goal of human life. It often leads to disregard for individual’s sentiments because of its rigid nature and sometimes unfair decisions are made and biasness is involved (Haker, 2020).
PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories
References:

Canning, U. P. (2019). Public health ethics: A flawed view of Kant’s argument from autonomy. Journal of Public Healthhttps://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdz164

Dale, S. (2020). Utilitarianism in crisis. Voices in Bioethics, 6https://journals.library.columbia.edu/index.php/bioethics/article/view/6082

Haker, H. (2020). Towards a critical political ethics: Catholic ethics and social challenges. In Google Books. Schwabe Verlag (Basel). https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=TxmvEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=natural+law+ethics+in+healthcare&ots=9HDTuQX9YJ&sig=g4YAwHRNmqaaAOrk7AlunCB5Au8

Kolawole, A. S., & David, E. O. (2022). Patient-physician relationship: In defence of w. d. ross’s prima facie duties. Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics, 13(3), 35–43. http://bjbio.bioethics.org.bd/index.php/BJBio/article/view/48

Paris, J. J., & Cummings, B. M. (2019). Elisabeth Kübler-Ross: A pioneer thinker, influential teacher and contributor to clinical ethics. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(12), 49–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2019.1674549

PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1 Matrix of Ethical Theories

Varkey, B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509119

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