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PSY FPX 6110 Assessment 4 Individualized Learning


Capella University

PSY FPX 6110 Learning Theories in Psychology

Prof. Name


Examining the Optimal Learning Environment and Case Study

Upon receiving a substantial inheritance, the necessity to work dissipates, yet my passion for learning and aiding individuals in discovering their inner potential persists. While I aspire to travel extensively, I am committed to continuing my education online with the aim of becoming an addictionologist. Typically, addictionologists are physicians who undergo additional training, supervision, and certification through the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). However, my ambition is to become the first psychologist to attain this designation or establish a new association catering to psychologists.

Although the National Association for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors (NAADAC) provides certification for nonphysician addiction professionals through the National Certification Commission for Addiction Professionals (NCCAP), it lacks the recognition of ASAM. Despite being certified by the California Association of Alcohol and Drug Educators (CAADE) since 1997, which is governed by the Addiction Counseling Certification Board of California (ACCBC), I aim to challenge ASAM to acknowledge psychologists in the field.

Consequently, my global travels combined with online education will pave the way to fulfilling my goal of facilitating transformative changes in individuals’ lives through a variety of therapeutic approaches, including small group exercises and workshops that blend observation and active participation.

PSY FPX 6110 Assessment 4 Individualized Learning

Addiction manifests in diverse forms beyond substance abuse, including food, shopping, gambling, internet usage, gaming, isolation, love, sex, and work. Hence, a broad spectrum of individuals stands to benefit from understanding addiction and modifying their behaviors, emotions, and perspectives (Srinivasan et al., 2021; Zilberman et al., 2019). Accordingly, enhancing my education, particularly through online adult learning platforms, will create avenues for such transformation.

Knowles’s Andragogy Learning Theory

Self-directed nature of adult learnersAdults are motivated by personal experiences and possess a desire for autonomy and relevance in their learning.
Emphasis on personal experiencesLearning is influenced by individuals’ past experiences and relevant contexts.
Readiness to learn based on immediate relevanceAdults are more receptive to learning when they perceive its immediate applicability to their lives or work.
Orientation towards problem-centered approachesLearning is often problem-centered, with adults seeking solutions to real-life issues.
Motivation influenced by internal factorsAdults are intrinsically motivated to learn, driven by personal goals and aspirations.
Readiness to learn is based on developmental stageLearning readiness varies depending on an individual’s stage of life and personal circumstances.

Knowles’s andragogy presents a theoretical framework that aligns with my educational pursuits. Although Alexander Kapp introduced the concept in 1833, it was not until Malcolm Shepherd Knowles developed it further in the 1970s that andragogy gained prominence in adult education (Loeng, 2018; Peltz & Clemons, 2019). Numerous studies attest to the efficacy of andragogy in adult education, particularly in online settings, where it fosters self-directed learning and engagement (Suzanne, 2019; Cata et al., 2020; Russell, 2021). Embracing andragogy not only complements my professional background but also facilitates my educational journey amidst other commitments.

Knowles’s Andragogy and Addictionology

As a seasoned addiction counselor embarking on further education, andragogy resonates with my learning style and life circumstances. Unlike traditional campus-based programs, andragogy offers the flexibility necessary for individuals like myself, balancing professional responsibilities with academic pursuits (Capella University, n.d.-b). Moreover, it aligns with the evolving landscape of addiction research, which often faces challenges associated with funding and biases (Monroe & Stansbury, 2009; Kepes & McDaniel, 2013; Fickweiler et al., 2017). By embracing andragogy, I aim to contribute meaningfully to addiction research and practice, leveraging online platforms to enhance accessibility and effectiveness.

A Case Study

Consider Mike, a 28-year-old who recently completed a prison sentence for drug trafficking. Despite facing significant challenges, including familial expectations and substance abuse issues, Mike aspires to rebuild his life through education and recovery. His journey exemplifies the transformative potential of online learning and support systems such as 12-step programs and addiction counseling. By leveraging the principles of andragogy, Mike can pursue his educational and recovery goals in a flexible and self-directed manner (Capella University, n.d.-a).

Bandura’s Social Learning and Addiction/Recovery

Bandura’s social learning theory offers complementary insights into addiction and recovery processes. By emphasizing observational learning and self-efficacy, this theory underscores the importance of positive role models and supportive environments in facilitating behavioral change (Ferrari et al., 2010; Tsang et al., 2012). In conjunction with andragogy, Bandura’s framework can inform personalized interventions that empower individuals like Mike to overcome addiction and achieve sustainable recovery.


In conclusion, the synergy between Knowles’s andragogy and Bandura’s social learning theory holds promise for addressing addiction-related challenges. As I pursue my educational and professional aspirations, andragogy provides a robust framework for self-directed learning and growth. Similarly, individuals like Mike can leverage online resources and supportive networks to embark on transformative journeys of recovery and personal development. In a post-COVID-19 era, online education emerges as a vital tool for expanding access to learning and fostering positive change in individuals and communities alike.


Capella University. (n. d.-a). Theory comparison. J. Walsh. Retrieved from

Capella University. (n. d.-b). The current debate on learning theory. J. Walsh. Retrieved from

Cata, T., Hackbarth, G., & Sakaguchi, T. (2020). Redesigning an information systems course for MBA students. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 20(15), 36-48.

Ferrari, M., Robinson, D. K., & Yasnitsky, A. (2010). Wundt, Vygotsky and Bandura: A cultural-historical science of consciousness in three acts. History of the Human Sciences, 23(3), 95-118.

Fickweiler F, Fickweiler W, & Urbach E. Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry generally and sales representatives specifically and their association with physicians’ attitudes and prescribing habits: a systematic review. BMJ Open, 7, 1-12.

Ibañez, C., Vicencio, S., Quintanilla, M. E., & Maldonado, P. (2021). Interoception and alcohol addiction: Vagotomy induces long-lasting suppression of relapse-type behavior. Addiction Biology, 26(1), e12836-n/a.

Kepes, S., & McDaniel, M., A. (2013). How trustworthy is the scientific literature in industrial and organizational psychology? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(13), 252-268.

Loeng, S. (2018). Various ways of understanding the concept of andragogy. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-15.

Monroe, G., D. & Stansbury, J., A. (2009). The Dark-side of self-affirmation: Confirmation bias and illusory correlation in response to threatening information. Personality and Social Psychological Society, 35(9), 1143-1153.

PSY FPX 6110 Assessment 4 Individualized Learning

Peltz, D. P., & Clemons, A. C. (Eds.). (2019). Multicultural Andragogy for Transformative Learning. IGI Global.

Russell, B. H. (2021). Reflective interprofessional clinical observation to promote clinical judgment in second-degree prelicensure students. The Journal of Nursing Education, 60(2), 121-122.

Srinivasan, C., Phan, B. N., Lawler, A. J., Ramamurthy, E., Kleyman, M., Brown, A. R., Kaplow, I. M., Wirthlin, M. E., & Pfenning, A. R. (2021). Addiction-associated genetic variants implicate brain cell type- and region-specific cis-regulatory elements in addiction neurobiology. The Journal of Neuroscience, 41(43), 9008-9030.

Suzanne, M. (2019). Instructional strategies and adult learning theories: An autoethnographic study about teaching research methods in a doctoral program. Education (Chula Vista), 139(3), 178-186.

Tsang, S. K. M., Hui, E. K. P., & Law, B. C. M. (2012). Self-efficacy as a positive youth development construct: A conceptual review. Thescientificworld, 2012, 452327-7.

Zilberman, N., Lavidor, M., Yadid, G., & Rassovsky, Y. (2019). Qualitative review and quantitative effect size meta-analyses in brain regions identified by cue-reactivity addiction studies. Neuropsychology, 33(3), 319-334.

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