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PSYC FPX 3770 Assessment 2 Motivation and Performance in Education


Capella University

PSYC FPX 3770 Psychology of Human Motivation and Performance

Prof. Name


The Problem: Procrastination

Procrastination represents a significant obstacle for students in accomplishing tasks or assignments, negatively affecting their motivation and leading to subpar academic performance (Klingsieck, 2013). This issue consistently troubles a substantial number of students and is often associated with symptoms of anxiety and stress (Klingsieck, 2013).

The Solution

Implementing stimulus control can be highly effective in addressing procrastination, based on the principle that removing distractions will reduce procrastination behaviors (Steel, Svartdal, Thundiyil, & Brothen, 2018). This method aligns well with effective self-regulation techniques (Steel, Svartdal, Thundiyil, & Brothen, 2018). Additionally, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) presents another practical solution, focusing on the idea that optimal performance is driven by intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, fulfilling basic psychological needs (Rozental et al., 2018; Cook & Artino Jr., 2016).

The Theories

The Self-Determination Theory emphasizes human motivation, centered on fundamental growth and psychological needs such as autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Lopez-Garrido, 2021). This theory differentiates between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation (Lopez-Garrido, 2021). On the other hand, the Temporal Motivation Theory highlights the importance of time as a motivational factor, examining elements like expectancy/self-efficacy, value, impulsiveness, and delay (Steel, Svartdal, Thundiyil, & Brothen, 2018).

The Research

Research indicates that impulsive decisions are intensified by stimuli, underscoring the importance of managing environmental cues (Steel, Svartdal, Thundiyil, & Brothen, 2018). Findings suggest that distancing oneself from temptations or eliminating them can reduce procrastination (Fishbach & Shah, 2006). Moreover, avoiding tempting activities by controlling stimuli and focusing on goal-oriented tasks can significantly decrease procrastination tendencies (Fishbach & Shah, 2006).

PSYC FPX 3770 Assessment 2 Motivation and Performance in Education

Research (cont.)

CBT, especially in group settings, has shown substantial improvements in academic procrastination (Rozental et al., 2018). It has proven effective in significantly lowering procrastination scores (Karas & Spada, 2007). Furthermore, studies reveal that CBT interventions, particularly when combined with therapist contact, positively influence treatment outcomes, including internet-based interventions (Rozental & Carlbring, 2013).

Applying This Information by Professionals

In educational environments, teachers can enhance autonomy by providing choices in learning materials and assessment formats (Usable Knowledge, 2016). They can foster relatedness through collaborative activities and minimize physical barriers to improve stimulus control (Usable Knowledge, 2016). Additionally, offering appropriately challenging tasks and constructive feedback can boost competence and motivation (Usable Knowledge, 2016).

Summary & Conclusion

In conclusion, procrastination is a significant challenge in academics, which can be addressed through the Self-Determination Theory and the Temporal Motivation Theory. Stimulus control and CBT are effective strategies for combating procrastination. Educators and professionals can apply these theories and research findings to reduce procrastination and enhance student motivation and performance.


Cook, D., & Artino Jr., A. (2016). Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories. DOI: 10.111/medu.13074

Fishbach, A., & Shah, J. (2006). Self-Control in Action: implicit dispositions toward goals and away from temptations. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.820

Karas, D., & Spada, M. M. (2009). Brief cognitive-behavioral coaching for procrastination: A case series. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.820

Klingsieck, K. B. (2013). Procrastination: When good things don’t come to those who wait. DOI: 10.1027/1016-90401/9000138

Lopez-Garrido, G. (2021). Self-Determination Theory and Motivation.

Rozental, A., & Carlbring, P. (2013). Internet-Based cognitive behavioral therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Rozental, A. et al. (2018). Treating Procrastination Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Delivered via The Internet or in Groups.

Steel, P., Svartdal, F., Thundiyil, T., & Brothen, T. (2018). Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

PSYC FPX 3770 Assessment 2 Motivation and Performance in Education

Usable Knowledge (2016). Intrinsically Motivated.


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