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PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go


Capella University

PSYC FPX 4300 Introduction to Addiction Treatment

Prof. Name


Intervention: Sam & Brad’s Drug-Fueled Codependency


In the premier episode of Season 19, the focus was on the intervention for Sam and Brad. Samantha, aged 28, suffers from hepatitis C, primarily contracted through needle sharing, which can potentially lead to liver failure. Her history of migraines and subsequent overuse of painkillers, starting in high school, paved the way for her dependence on prescription opioids. Brad’s addiction to heroin began following a severe accident at the age of 22. Their lives intertwined through their struggle with opioid addiction, resulting in a codependent relationship centered around drug use (Browne et al., 2019).

Addiction Concepts and Relevant Criteria

Analyzing the criteria for opioid use disorder, especially in the context of updates by Koob (2019), provides insight into Sam and Brad’s predicament. The global surge in opioid addiction and associated deaths has led to increased efforts to mitigate the risks linked with opioid prescriptions (Klimas et al., 2019). Both Sam and Brad display typical addiction symptoms, such as uncontrolled consumption and withdrawal signs. Their medical histories and opioid use add complexity to their addiction (Eichmeyer & Zhang, 2022).

Meeting Substance Use Disorder Criteria

Per the DSM-5, drug addiction is characterized by dysfunctional behaviors that significantly impair social functioning and overall well-being. Opioid addiction, as a chronic disease, can have severe personal and social repercussions (Arterberry et al., 2019). Despite their different health conditions, both Sam and Brad exhibit behaviors indicative of opioid addiction. Their relationship, heavily influenced by their drug use, further complicates their circumstances (Boyda et al., 2020).

Current Stage of Addiction

Moving from substance dependence to recovery is a challenging journey. The codependency between Sam and Brad is a critical element of their relationship, making their path to sobriety more complex. Brad’s health issues, including liver toxicity and hepatitis C, highlight the severity of their addiction (Messina & Worley, 2019).

Appropriateness of Rehabilitation

Initially, despite familial support, Sam and Brad struggle to undergo treatment together. Eventually, they choose separate rehabilitation programs to address their individual needs. Inpatient and residential programs provide structured care essential for overcoming drug dependency (Beetham et al., 2021).


Sam and Brad’s descent into drug addiction emphasizes the need for responsible opioid prescribing practices. Their intertwined struggles underscore the complexities of addiction and the necessity for comprehensive treatment approaches.


Arterberry, B. J., Boyd, C. J., West, B. T., Schepis, T. S., & McCabe, S. E. (2019). DSM-5 Substance use disorders among college-age young adults in the United States: Prevalence, remission, and treatment. Journal of American College Health, 1–8.

Beetham, T., Saloner, B., Gaye, M., Wakeman, S. E., Frank, R. G., & Barnett, M. L. (2021). Admission practices and cost of care for opioid use disorder at residential addiction treatment programs in The US. Health Affairs, 40(2), 317–325.

Boyda, S., Ivsins, A., & Murrayc, D. (2020). Problematizing the DSM-5 criteria for opioid use disorder: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Drug Policy, 78, 102690.

Browne, C. J., Godino, A., Salery, M., & Nestler, E. J. (2019). Epigenetic mechanisms of opioid addiction. Biological Psychiatry, 87(1).

PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go

Eichmeyer, S., & Zhang, J. (2022). Pathways into opioid dependence: evidence from practice variation in emergency departments. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 14(4), 271–300.

Klimas, J., Gorfinkel, L., Fairbairn, N., Amato, L., Ahamad, K., Nolan, S., Simel, D. L., & Wood, E. (2019). Strategies to identify patient risks of prescription opioid addiction when initiating opioids for pain. JAMA Network Open, 2(5), e193365.

Koob, G. F. (2019). Neurobiology of opioid addiction: opponent process, hyperkatifeia, and negative reinforcement. Biological Psychiatry, 87(1).

Messina, B. G., & Worley, M. J. (2019). Effects of craving on opioid use are attenuated after pain-coping counseling in adults with chronic pain and prescription opioid addiction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(10), 918–926.

Soffin, E. M., Lee, B. H., Kumar, K. K., & Wu, C. L. (2018). The prescription opioid crisis: Role of the anesthesiologist in reducing opioid use and misuse. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 122(6).

Strang, J., Volkow, N. D., Degenhardt, L., Hickman, M., Johnson, K., Koob, G. F., Marshall, B. D. L., Tyndall, M., & Walsh, S. L. (2020). Opioid use disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 6(1), 1–28.

PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go

Wang, S.-C., Chen, Y.-C., Lee, C.-H., & Cheng, C.-M. (2019). Opioid addiction, genetic susceptibility, and medical treatments: a review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(17).

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