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PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles

Name

Capella University

PSYC FPX 4310 Biological Psychology

Prof. Name

Date

Introduction

This evaluation focuses on the neurobiology of MDMA (Ecstasy) misuse, exploring various viewpoints within biological psychology through an analysis of peer-reviewed research articles.

MDMA, or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a psychoactive substance often used recreationally for its euphoric and social bonding effects (Montgomery & Roberts, 2022). Its complex pharmacological profile has also led to research into its potential therapeutic uses, including for treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety.

MDMA primarily affects the serotonin system in the brain, inhibiting serotonin reuptake and increasing serotonin signaling. This results in feelings of well-being and emotional warmth associated with the drug.

The misuse of MDMA can lead to significant short-term and long-term health issues, including physical and mental health problems such as dehydration, hyperthermia, anxiety, depression, and changes in brain structure and function. Understanding the neurobiology of MDMA misuse is crucial for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies, guiding public health policies, and reducing the adverse effects of its misuse.

Search Strategies

To gather information on the neurobiology of MDMA misuse, a variety of search terms were used, including “MDMA,” “ecstasy,” “3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,” “neurobiology,” “misuse,” “brain,” “neurotransmitter,” “serotonin,” “dopamine,” “noradrenaline,” “reward,” “arousal,” “dependence,” “toxicity,” “cognitive effects,” “mental health,” “prevention,” and “treatment.”

The research involved specific methodologies, including searches conducted in the Capella University Library using Boolean operators and relevant keywords. Focus was given to medical research and clinical trials related to depression treatment. Peer-reviewed articles, original research papers, clinical trials, and expert studies were reviewed for accuracy and relevance. Additional data was sourced from databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and the National Library of Medicine to comprehensively address the neurobiology of MDMA misuse.

Article Analysis

Article 1

Author
Title
Source
Methodology
Key Findings

Sessa, B. (2017)

MDMA and PTSD treatment

Neuroscience Letters

Literature reviews, case studies

Highlights controlled, supervised administration of MDMA in clinical settings, emphasizing differences from recreational use and addressing neurotoxicity concerns. Phase one neurophysiological studies and phase two clinical trials were cited. More research is needed due to sample size limitations.

Link

 

 

 

 

Article 2

Author
Title
Source
Methodology
Key Findings

Parrott, A. C. (2013)

Human psychobiology of MDMA or “Ecstasy”: An overview of 25 years of empirical research

Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental

Literature reviews, analysis of existing evidence

Examines MDMA-drug interactions (MDMA-DIs), including experimental evidence, clinical instances, and expert opinions. Investigates interactions between MDMA and other substances and their toxicological implications.

Link

 

 

 

 

Article 3

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles

Author
Title
Source
Methodology
Key Findings

Costa, G., & Gołembiowska, K. (2022)

Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms

Experimental Neurology

Review article

Summarizes recent findings on MDMA’s central effects and neurotoxicity mechanisms. Discusses serotonin and dopamine transporter interactions, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. Highlights positive and negative effects depending on dosage, frequency, and duration of use.

Link

 

 

 

 

Article 4

Author
Title
Source
Methodology
Key Findings

R., Shokry, I. M., & Callanan, J. J. (2017)

Environment influencing serotonin syndrome induced by ecstasy abuse

Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis

Analysis of existing data

Examines the impact of environmental factors on MDMA-induced serotonin syndrome. Analyzes data to understand how non-drug factors affect the severity of serotonin syndrome through serotonergic extrasynaptic receptor responsiveness.

Link

 

 

 

 

Article 5

Author
Title
Source
Methodology
Key Findings

Montgomery, C., & Roberts, C. A. (2022)

Neurological and cognitive alterations induced by MDMA in humans

Experimental Neurology

Human-based research

Investigates neurological and cognitive effects of MDMA, emphasizing the challenges in identifying serotonergic neurotoxicity due to confounding variables and reliance on self-reports. Highlights structural and functional brain changes due to ecstasy use.

 Conclusion

The reviewed articles provide significant insights into various aspects of MDMA use and its effects. The research highlights potential therapeutic benefits of MDMA under controlled conditions while also pointing out its dangerous aspects, such as interactions with other substances and neurotoxic effects. Continued research is essential to fully understand the risks and benefits of MDMA use and to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to mitigate its adverse health impacts.

References

Costa, G., & Gołembiowska, K. (2022). Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113894

Montgomery, C., & Roberts, C. A. (2022). Neurological and cognitive alterations induced by MDMA in humans. Experimental Neurology, 347(1), 113888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113888

Parrott, A. C. (2013). Human psychobiology of MDMA or “Ecstasy”: An overview of 25 years of empirical research. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28(4), 289–307. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2318

R., Shokry, I. M., & Callanan, J. J. (2017). Environment influencing serotonin syndrome induced by ecstasy abuse. Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis, 4(1), 1039. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931730/

PSYC FPX 4310 Assessment 1 Analysis of Articles

Sessa, B. (2017). MDMA and PTSD treatment. Neuroscience Letters, 649, 176–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.004



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