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PSYC FPX 4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics Frequency Distributions Percentiles and Graphical Representations


Capella University

PSYC FPX 4700 Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

Prof. Name


Basics of Research and Statistics, Frequency Distributions, Percentiles, and Graphical Representations
Problem Set 1.1:Recognizing Variables (Dependent, Independent, Quasi-Independent)

This section involves identifying different types of variables within given examples. Variables can be categorized into independent variables, quasi-independent variables, and dependent variables.

Independent Variable
Quasi-Independent Variable
Dependent Variable


Cocaine use

Cocaine-dependent vs. Cocaine-inexperienced

Impulsive behavior


Test format (multiple-choice vs. fill-in-the-blank)


Student performance


Smoking by parents


Children’s attitudes toward smoking


Political affiliation

Democrat vs. Republican

Attitudes toward morality


Cultural background


Belief in meaning of dreams

Problem Set 1.2: Understanding Sample and Population

 Szklarska et al. (2007) likely sampled participants for their study. These individuals are likely a subset of the broader population of nineteen-year-old men, rather than representing the entire group.

Problem Set 1.3: Creating a Dataset for Use in JASP

A dataset has been prepared in Excel and saved as a .csv file. It includes the following data:







PSYC FPX 4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics Frequency Distributions Percentiles and Graphical Representations

Problem Set 1.4.a: Grouped or Ungrouped Data

This section differentiates between grouped and ungrouped data based on specific examples.




Data categorized into intervals



Data categorized into discrete categories



Data in discrete categories



Data is individual observations

Problem Set 1.4.b: Understanding Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

The percentages reported in the provided example are descriptive statistics. They describe the percentage of Americans who own guns over different decades. Analysis of the given data indicates that gun ownership in the United States has fluctuated over the past 40 years, peaking at 48% in 1992 and dropping to a low of 40% in 2002.

Problem Set 1.5: Reading a Chart

From the sample provided, college professors spoke more words overall (Token Count). However, clinical psychologists used a greater variety of words (Type Count).

Problem Set 1.6: Frequencies and Percentages

This problem set addresses different types of frequencies and percentages.

  • Cumulative Frequency represents the occurrence rate of businesses having a minimum of 20 employees.
  • Cumulative Relative Frequency indicates the proportion of college students with GPAs below 3.0, calculated cumulatively from the least to the highest.
  • Relative Percent denotes the proportion of women managing 1, 2, 3, or 4 tasks simultaneously, expressed as a percentage.
  • Relative Frequency signifies the ratio of pregnancies delivered in either public or private hospitals, compared to the total number of pregnancies.
  • Cumulative Percent reflects the percentage of alcoholics who have undergone substance abuse for more than 2 years, summarized cumulatively from the highest to the lowest.
Problem Set 1.7: Understanding Percentages

The given distribution is an example of a frequency distribution. Out of 1,280 adults polled nationwide, 742 believed that same-sex couples should be legally permitted to marry.

Problem Set 1.8: Creating an Ascending Frequency Table in JASP

[Table here]

Problem Set 1.9: Constructing a Bar Graph in JASP

[Bar graph here]

The shape of the distribution is [insert shape if known].

Problem Set 1.10: Constructing a Pie Chart in JASP

[Pie chart here]


Szklarska, A., Krupa, K., & Sosnowski, T. (2007). Height and educational attainment. Journal of Educational Research, 99(3), 141-146.

PSYC FPX 4700 Assessment 1 Basics of Research and Statistics Frequency Distributions Percentiles and Graphical Representations

Gallup. (n.d.). Guns. Retrieved from

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